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Table 2 Characteristics of studies included in the systematic review

From: The impact of primary care reform on health system performance in Canada: a systematic review

Organizational change Study Population Intervention
Source Year Design Province Study population N Sub-population Study follow-up Interventiona Comparison group Primary Outcome
Team-based primary care models Héroux, J. et al. 2014 Cohort study Quebec Patients 231,938 Vulnerable patients 3 years Family medicine groups Individuals not enrolled in a Family medicine group Health service utilization
Lévesque, J.F. et al. 2012 Cohort study Quebec Patients 598 Chronically ill (diabetes, heart failure, COPD, arthritis) 18 months Family medicine groupsb Individuals receiving care in community health centers Processes of care
Feldman, D.E. et al. 2012 Cohort study Quebec Patients 598 Chronically ill (diabetes, heart failure, COPD, arthritis) 18 months Family medicine groupsb Individuals receiving care in community health centers Processes of care
Manns, B.J. et al. 2012 Cohort study Alberta Patients 154,928 Diabetes 1 year Primary care networks Individuals not enrolled in a Primary Care Network Health service utilization
Campbell, D.J.T. et al. 2012 Cohort study Alberta Patients 106,653 Diabetes
Low-income
First Nations
1 year Primary care networks Individuals in the sub-population of interest not enrolled with a Primary Care Network Health service utilization
Payment models and incentives Kiran, T. et al. 2014 Before and after Ontario Patients Cervical cancer: 3,056,337
Breast cancer: 1,600,645
Colorectal cancer: 3,713,963
NA 10 years Pay for performance Outcome measures in the pre-intervention period Processes of care
Li, J. et al. 2014 Before and after Ontario Physicians 2,154 NA 10 years Pay for performance FFS Processes of care
Kantarevic, J. et al. 2013 Before and after Ontario Physicians 3,588 Diabetes 2 years Blended capitation Enhanced FFS Processes of care
Kiran, T. et al. 2012 Cohort study Ontario Patients 58, 927 Diabetes 5 years Payment modelsc Outcome measures in the pre-intervention period Processes of care
Jaakimainen, L.R. et al. 2011 Before and after Ontario Physicians 3,940 NA 4 years Payment modelsd Outcome measures in the pre-intervention period Processes of care
Kantarevic, J. et al. 2015 Before and after Ontario Physicians 3,428 NA 7 years Blended capitation Enhanced FFS Physician costs/productivity
Kantarevic, J. et al. 2014 Before and after Ontario Physicians 673 Complex and vulnerable patients 2 years Capitated incentive payment Enhanced FFS Physician costs/productivity
Kralj, B. et al. 2013 Before and after Ontario Physicians 4,156 NA 4 years Blended capitation Enhanced FFS Physician costs/productivity
Kantarevic, J. et al. 2011 Before and after Ontario Physicians 7,003 NA 17 years Enhanced FFSe FFS Physician costs/productivity
  1. aWhere the name of the practice model was not specified, only the payment modality is listed. Accordingly: Harmonized (blended capitation) models include: Family Health Networks and Family Health Organizations, Non-harmonized (enhanced FFS) models include: Family Health Group and Chronic Care Model
  2. bThe control group was identified according to how the comparisons were being made in the article and by what was listed as the reference category in a results table from a regression model
  3. cThe intervention group was identified as ‘payment models’ in instances where studies from Ontario survey all payment models as opposed to studying the effect of a single payment model in relation to a control group. Where the name of the practice model is given, we also specified the payment modality associated with it
  4. dThe authors examined the Family Health Group model (enhanced FFS) and the Family Health Network model (blended capitation). Enhanced FFS refers to predominantly FFS payment with bonuses for extended opening hours and patient enrolment
  5. eThe authors examined the Family Health Group model (enhanced FFS)