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Table 1 Measurement domains, variables, and data source by Ecological System and RE-AIM outcomes for patient, provider and geographic analyses

From: Antiretroviral medication treatment for all HIV-infected individuals: a protocol using innovative multilevel methodologies to evaluate New York City's universal ART policy among problem substance users

Indicator/domain Variable(s) Measurement source
Patient level: Person (MICRO): Reach, Efficacy, Maintenance
  Demographic Characteristics Age, race/ethnicity, sex, gender, marital status, living situation, dependents, education and income, insurance, legal, immigration status, religion and spirituality, medical history AFA Survey
  Primary Outcome: Viral load suppression Durable Suppression: two consecutive tests with ≤ 200 HIV-1 RNA copies per mL of plasma HIV Surveillance Registry
Viral Suppression: most recent test with ≤ 200 HIV-1 RNA copies per mL of plasma
  Secondary Outcome: Linkage Occurrence of first CD4/VL test date after study enrollment HIV Surveillance Registry
  Secondary Outcome: ART Initiation ART regimen initiated AFA Survey
  Secondary Outcome: Treatment retention Sustained engagement or regular care, ≥ 1 primary care visit in each 6 month interval HIV Surveillance Registry
  Secondary Outcome: HIV medication (ART) Adherence Adherent at threshold (≥90 %) for all ART medications Visual Analogue Scale [7274]
  Secondary Outcome: Quality of Life Health-related quality of life EQ-5D EuroQoL [75]
  Secondary Outcome: Sexual and Drug Use Risk Sexual partners, unprotected sex acts, needle/works sharing Modified Risk Assessment Battery and Risk Behavior Scale [76, 77]
  Predictor: Substance Use Illicit drug use (days), alcohol (days, # drinks), substance use disorder severity TLFB [78]; QuickTox 8-panel Drug Screen Dipcard; Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence [79]; DSM-V Checklist for Substance Use Disorders [80]
  Predictor: Mental Health Psychological distress Kessler10 [81], Personality Inventory for DSM-V Brief Form [82]; Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Screener [80]
  Predictor: Social Support Social network size/quality; disclosure of HIV to family/friends MOS Social Support Survey [83]; HIV Disclosure Status Questionnaire [84]
  Predictor: Service Utilization Medical, substance abuse treatment, mental health, case management, Ryan White-funded services Modified Treatment Services Review [85]
  Predictor: Attitudes Attitudes towards primary HIV provider professional Attitudes Towards HIV Health Care Providers Scale [86]; Medical Mistrust Index [87]
  Predictor: ART Barriers Barriers to ART adherence Adherence Barriers Questionnaire [88]
  Predictor: Stigma Experiences and perceived discrimination and stigma MIDUS Daily Discrimination Scale [89]; Social Impact Scale [90]
  Predictor: Knowledge HIV treatment knowledge HIV Treatment Related Knowledge Inventory [91, 92]
PROVIDER/PRIMARY CARE LEVEL (MESO): Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance
  Professional Characteristics Age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, years since terminal degree, HIV care (years in current position/providing HIV care, caseload) AFA Survey
  Predictor: Organizational characteristics Location, service type, size, staffing, service flexibility, impact of ACA, staff attributes, organizational culture and climate Perceived Environmental Uncertainty (unpublished measure, D’Aunno, 2013); Change Survey [93, 94]; Survey of Organizational Attributes for Primary Care [95]; Medical Group Practice Culture [96]
  Predictor: Knowledge Knowledge of ART guidelines; perceived self-efficacy to follow ART guidelines AFA Survey
  Predictor: Attitudes Attitudes and ideology toward patients and the provider/patient relationship, including patients with substance use problems Attitudes About Patients with Substance Use Disorders [97, 98]; Patient-Practitioner Orientation Scale [99]
NEIGHBORHOOD/GEOGRAPHIC LEVEL (EXO): Reach, Efficacy, Maintenance
  Predictor: Socioeconomic Conditions Poverty rate; median income; unemployment rate; educational attainment; percent of residents who are non-Hispanic White 2011 American Community Survey, 5-year estimate [100]
  Predictor: Health Service Spatial access to HIV primary care 2013 Data pull from HIVMA, AAHIVM, NYSDOH AIDS Institute Provider Database
  Predictor: Social Disorder Off-premises alcohol outlet density; vacant housing 2009–2012 U.S. Census Bureau’s Zip Code Business Patterns [101103]; 2009–2010, 2012 USPS Delivery Stats Product [104106]
  Predictor: Social Cohesion % of housing units leased; % households that moved into the neighborhood in last year 2011 American Community Survey, 5-year estimate [107]