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Table 4 Univariate analysis of the EQ-5D utility scores and categorical variables

From: Health-related quality of life and its influencing factors for patients with hypertension: evidence from the urban and rural areas of Shaanxi Province, China

  Urban group Rural group
  Mean SD P value* Mean SD P value*
Gender       <0.001
 Male 0.906 0.181 <0.001 0.887 0.192  
 Female 0.878 0.214   0.858 0.218  
Age Group       
 35–44 0.959 0.120   0.946 .118  
 45–54 0.948 0.130 <0.001 0.929 0.143 <0.001
 55–64 0.917 0.169   0.893 0.183  
  ≥ 65 0.845 0.233   0.803 0.250  
Ethnic group Han 0.890 0.201 0.670 0.870 0.207 0.463
Others 0.910 0.251   0.832 0.232  
Region       
 Shannan 0.875 0.207 <0.001 0.879 0.197 0.015
 Guanzhong 0.899 0.214   0.869 0.210  
 Shanbei 0.878 0.195   0.850 0.215  
Marital status    <0.001    
 Married 0.908 0.184   0.887 0.196 <0.001
 Single 0.915 0.174   0.846 0.216  
 Divorced 0.797 0.257   0.795 0.243  
 Widowed 0.886 0.149   0.980 0.600  
Education level    <0.001    <0.001
 Illiterate 0.797 0.263   0.815 0.241  
 Primary school 0.874 0.202   0.877 0.201  
 Junior high school 0.919 0.174   0.921 0.155  
 Senior high / technical school 0.928 0.162   0.922 0.163  
 College and above 0.948 0.123   0.995 0.026  
Employment status    <0.001    <0.001
 Employed 0.937 0.132   0.905 0.169  
 Retired 0.890 0.205   0.863 0.217  
 Unemployed 0.823 0.251   0.778 0.265  
Insurance coverage       
 Uninsured 0.890 0.201 0.071 0.833 0.174 0.175
 Insured 0.931 0.177   0.870 0.209  
Smoking status    <0.001    <0.001
 Yes 0.882 0.210   0.860 0.219  
 No 0.923 0.153   0.900 0.167  
Drinking status    <0.001    <0.001
 Yes 0.880 0.209   0.863 0.214  
 No 0.947 0.124   0.930 0.140  
Physical activity    <0.001    
 Yes 0.929 0.139   0.892 0.170 0.078
 No 0.854 0.239   0.865 0.216  
Health education       
 Yes 0.891 0.192 0.123 0.871 0.207 0.107
 No 0.890 0.215   0.858 0.218  
Health examination       
 Yes 0.899 0.175 0.924 0.870 0.200 0.275
 No 0.889 0.231   0.869 0.213  
  1. * ANOVA was employed to test the difference in EQ-5D utility scores at different levels of each variable. Missing data for the variables: marital status (urban/rural: 1/2), employment status (urban/rural: 5/0), insurance coverage (urban/rural: 8/2), smoking status (urban/rural: 2/0), drinking status (urban/rural: 24/35), physical activity (urban/rural: 17/12), health education (urban/rural: 0/4) and health examination (urban/rural: 1/8)