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Table 1 General description of publications included in the analysis (45 publications reviewed)

From: The use of e-health and m-health tools in health promotion and primary prevention among older adults: a systematic literature review

Classification category Sub categories N (%) Reference index in Additional file 2
Year of publication 2014–2015 15 (33.3) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 20, 28
2012–2013 12 (26.7) 14, 15,16,17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26,
2010–2011 6 (13.3) 27, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33,
2008–2009 6 (13.3) 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 44
2006–2007 6 (13.3) 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 45
Aim/type of study Descriptive 6 (13.3) 6, 8, 21, 23, 31, 38
Explorative 3 (6.7) 1, 5, 27,
Explanatory 36 (80) 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 24, 25, 26, 28, 29, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 39, 41, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45
Research approach Qualitative (primary data) 6 (13) 2, 5, 7, 23, 31, 38
Quantitative (primary data) 32 (69.6) 3, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45
Mixed (primary data) 3 (6.5) 1, 4, 30
Desk research (secondary data) 5 (10.9) 6, 8, 12, 13, 21
Design Qualitative 7 (15.2) 1, 2, 5, 7, 23, 31, 38
Quantitative - randomized controlled trial 28 (60.9) 3, 4, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 33, 34, 37, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44
Qualitative - not randomized controlled trial 9 (19.6) 6, 13, 23, 30, 32, 35, 36, 39, 45
Systematic review 2 (4.3) 8, 21
Data collection/design Observations 1 (2) 1
Focus group discussion 2 (4) 2, 16
Unstructured/semi structured interviews 7 (13)) 1, 3, 5, 7, 31, 38, 40
Standardized questionnaires/interviews/surveys 9 (17 11, 14, 18, 20, 30, 33, 37, 42, 43
Online web based questionnaires/assessments 10 (19) 4, 10, 17, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 40, 44
Secondary data/patient records 5 (10) 8, 9, 12, 13, 21
Test results/self-report 18 (35) 6, 11, 15, 18, 19, 22, 23, 24, 25, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 39, 41, 45
Reliability// Reliability is clear 19 (42.2) 1, 2, 5, 7, 8, 12, 14, 15, 16, 20, 21, 22, 24, 27, 38, 40, 41, 43, 44
Reliability is unclear 22 (48.9) 6, 9, 10, 11, 13, 17, 18, 19, 23, 25, 28, 29, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 39, 42, 45
Reliability is not analyzed 4 (8.9) 3, 4, 26, 30,
Validity Validity is clear 16 (35.6) 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 15, 16, 20, 21, 30, 36, 38, 41, 42, 43, 44
Validity is unclear 22 (48.9) 4, 6, 9, 11, 13, 14, 18, 19, 22, 23, 24, 25, 28, 29, 31, 32, 34, 35, 37, 39, 40, 45
Validity is not analyzed 7 (15.6) 7, 10, 12, 17, 26, 27, 33
Generalizability Generalizability is clear 11 (24.4) 1, 5, 6, 8, 9, 14, 16, 22, 42, 43, 45
Generalizability is unclear 20 (44.4) 2, 3, 11, 12, 13,17, 18, 19, 20, 24, 25, 28, 29, 31, 34, 37, 39, 40, 41, 44
Generalizability is not analyzed 14 (31.1) 4, 7 10, 15, 21, 23, 26, 27, 30, 32, 33, 35, 36, 38,
  1. The sum of N per category can exceed 45 as papers can be classified in multiple sub-categories