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Table 3 Independent effect of baseline characteristics on medication adherencea

From: Clinical and demographic correlates of medication and visit adherence in a large randomized controlled trial

  Odds ratio (95 % CI) - Multiple logistic regression
Full model Reduced model
Baseline characteristic (N = 28,176) P-value (N = 28,176) P-value
Adequate Visit Adherence 0.97 (0.91–1.03) 0.330   
Male 1.01 (0.94–1.07) 0.885   
Age (55–64 is the ref group)     
 65–74 0.92 (0.85–0.98) 0.014 0.91 (0.85–0.97) 0.007
 ≥75 0.82 (0.75–0.89) <0.001 0.81 (0.74–0.88) <0.001
Race and Ethnicity (Black is reference group)     
 Non-Black Hispanic 0.76 (0.69–0.82) <0.001 0.75 (0.69–0.82) <0.001
 Non-Black Non-Hispanic 1.45 (1.36–1.55) <0.001 1.45 (1.36–1.55) <0.001
Education (High school is the reference group)     
 < High school 0.91 (0.85–0.97) 0.006 0.91 (0.85–0.97) 0.006
 Beyond high school 1.02 (0.95–1.09) 0.645 1.02 (0.95–1.09) 0.654
Has diabetes 0.96 (0.90–1.02) 0.207   
Smoking (Current is reference group)     
 Past 1.13 (1.05–1.22) 0.001 1.13 (1.05–1.21) 0.001
 Never 1.15 (1.06–1.24) <0.001 1.14 (1.06–1.23) <0.001
Self-assessed baseline health (Excellent is reference group)     
 Very good 0.93 (0.82–1.06) 0.283 0.93 (0.82–1.06) 0.287
 Good 0.90 (0.80–1.02) 0.096 0.90 (0.80–1.02) 0.093
 Fair 0.79 (0.70–0.90) <0.001 0.79 (0.70–0.90) <0.001
 Poor 0.94 (0.77–1.14) 0.515 0.94 (0.77–1.14) 0.509
 Unknown 0.89 (0.59–1.35) 0.590 0.89 (0.59–1.34) 0.568
Practice type (Private is reference group)     
 Group 1.56 (1.44–1.70) <0.001 1.56 (1.44–1.70) <0.001
 HMO 2.00 (1.68–2.39) <0.001 2.01 (1.68–2.40) <0.001
 Community Health Center 1.22 (1.10–1.36) <0.001 1.22 (1.10–1.36) <0.001
 University 1.22 (1.10–1.35) <0.001 1.21 (1.10–1.34) <0.001
 Other 1.70 (1.52–1.90) <0.001 1.70 (1.52–1.90) <0.001
 VAMC 1.18 (1.08–1.29) <0.001 1.18 (1.08–1.28) <0.001
 Unknown 1.46 (1.28–1.68) <0.001 1.48 (1.29–1.70) <0.001
Baseline Medications (Untreated is reference group)     
 On drug therapy < 2 months 1.24 (1.13–1.35) <0.001 1.23 (1.13–1.35) <0.001
 On drug therapy ≥ 2 months 1.11 (0.94–1.30) 0.225 1.11 (0.94–1.30) 0.224
HDL Cholesterol < 35 mg/dl 1.03 (0.94–1.12) 0.585   
Taking aspirin 1.14 (1.07–1.21) <0.001 1.13 (1.07–1.20) <0.001
Possible disability 0.91 (0.84–0.99) 0.033 0.91 (0.84–0.99) 0.022
ASCVD (No ASCVD is reference group)     
 Yes 0.94 (0.87–1.01) 0.082 0.95 (0.89–1.01) 0.117
 Sub-clinical 0.76 (0.71–0.82) <0.001 0.77 (0.72–0.83) <0.001
BMI > 30 1.05 (0.99–1.11) 0.105   
Decile of clinic enrollment volume 1.05 (1.04–1.06) <0.001 1.05 (1.04–1.06) <0.001
Randomized treatment group (Chlorthalidone is reference group)     
 Amlodipine 0.99 (0.93–1.05) 0.722 0.99 (0.93–1.05) 0.722
 Lisinopril 0.92 (0.86–0.98) 0.010 0.92 (0.86–0.98) 0.012
  1. aMedication adherence is a dichotomous variable defined as poor adherence if participants reported taking less than 80 % of their step 1 medication at any visit and as good if they reported taking 80 % or more of this medication at all visits