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Table 1 Baseline characteristics by medication and visit adherence

From: Clinical and demographic correlates of medication and visit adherence in a large randomized controlled trial

Baseline characteristic Medication adherence* Visit adherence
N Adequate adherence P-value N Adequate adherence P-value
Gender, n (%)    <0.001    <0.001
 Male 16,344 11,942 (73.1) 17,343 12,464 (71.9)
 Female 14,020 9,955 (71.0) 15,395 9,656 (62.7)
Age group, n (%)    <0.001    <0.001
 55–64 13,037 9,481 (72.7) 14,014 9,191 (65.6)
 65–74 12,250 8,885 (72.5) 13,176 9,152 (69.5)
 ≥75 5,077 3,531 (69.5) 5,548 3,777 (68.1)
Race and Ethnicity, n (%)    <0.001    <0.001
 Black 10,616 7,269 (68.5) 11,572 6,950 (60.1)
 Non-Black Hispanic 4,377 2,772 (63.3) 5,146 2,784 (54.1)
 Non-Black Non-Hispanic 15,371 11,856 (77.1) 16,020 12,386 (77.3)
Education, n (%)    <0.001    <0.001
 < High school 12,076 8,340 (69.1) 13,215 8,530 (64.5)
 High school 8,194 6,068 (74.1) 8,700 6,157 (70.8)
 Beyond high school 8,138 6,137 (75.4) 8,609 6,263 (72.7)
Type II Diabetes, n (%)    0.721    <0.001
 Yes 10,879 14,065 (72.2) 11,810 7,757 (65.7)
 No 19,485 7,832 (72.0) 20,928 14,363 (68.6)
Smoking, n (%)    <0.001    <0.001
 Current 6,596 4,673 (70.8) 7,121 4,657 (65.4)
 Past 12,395 9,112 (73.5) 13,212 9,462 (71.6)
 Never 11,372 8,111 (71.3) 12,403 8,001 (64.5)
Self-assessed baseline health, n (%)    <0.001    <0.001
 Excellent 1,735 1,312 (75.6) 1,813 1,332 (73.5)
 Very good 7,090 5,249 (74.0) 7,639 5,415 (70.9)
 Good 13,490 9,747 (72.3) 14,593 9,873 (67.7)
 Fair 6,905 4,748 (68.8) 7,440 4,790 (64.4)
 Poor 837 609 (72.8) 917 530 (57.8)
 Unknown 307 232 (75.6) 336 180 (53.6)
Practice type, n (%)    <0.001    <0.001
 Private 8,895 5,867 (66.0) 9,845 6,169 (62.7)
 Group 6,035 4,705 (78.0) 6,403 4,621 (72.2)
 HMO 872 690 (79.1) 1,150 567 (49.3)
 Community Health Center 2,519 1,796 (71.3) 2,663 1,674 (62.9)
 University 2,878 2,060 (71.6) 3,011 2,195 (72.9)
 Other 2,530 1,940 (76.7) 2,744 1,795 (65.4)
 VAMC 5,340 3,924 (73.5) 5,503 4,541 (82.5)
 Unknown 1,295 915 (70.7) 1,419 558 (39.3)
Clinic enrollment volume, n (%)    <0.001    <0.001
 1–33 participants 3135 2086 (66.5) 3299 2077 (63.0)
 34–54 participants 3161 2332 (73.8) 3318 2262 (68.2)
 55–74 participants 3220 2404 (74.7) 3388 2389 (70.5)
 75–100 participants 3255 2269 (69.7) 3393 2497 (73.6)
 101–125 participants 2865 2233 (77.9) 3008 2126 (70.7)
 126–170 participants 3104 2196 (70.7) 3339 2276 (68.2)
 171–215 participants 3176 2392 (75.3) 3313 2570 (77.6)
 216–325 participants 2940 2310 (78.6) 3354 2307 (68.8)
 326–491 participants 2833 2044 (72.1) 3360 1738 (51.7)
 492–607 participants 2675 1631 (61.0) 2966 1878 (63.3)
Baseline medication use, n (%)    <0.001    <0.001
 On drug therapy ≥ 2 months 26,375 19,174 (72.7) 28,416 19,486 (68.6)
 On drug therapy < 2 months 1,025 701 (68.4) 1,114 684 (61.4)
 Currently untreated 2,964 2,022 (68.2) 3,207 1,950 (60.8)
HDL cholesterol < 35 mg/dl, n (%)    <0.001    <0.001
 Yes 3,608 2,732 (75.7) 3,829 2,842 (74.2)
 No 26,756 19,165 (71.6) 28,909 19,278 (66.7)
Aspirin use, n (%)    <0.001    <0.001
 Yes 11,053 8,300 (75.1) 11,737 8,654 (73.7)
 No 18,955 13,348 (70.4) 20,591 13,260 (64.4)
Geographic region, n (%)    <0.001    <0.001
 Northeast 4,637 3,399 (73.3) 4,918 3,489 (70.9)
 Midwest 5,704 4,141 (72.6) 5,932 4,510 (76.0)
 South 12,799 9,471 (74.0) 13,624 8,963 (65.8)
 West 3,045 2,183 (71.7) 3,164 2,408 (76.1)
 Canada 537 422 (78.6) 542 509 (93.9)
 Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands 3,642 2,281 (62.6) 4,558 2,241 (49.2)
Possible disability, n (%)    0.712    <0.001
 Yes 5,533 3,979 (71.9) 5,836 4,414 (75.6)
 No 24,831 17,918 (72.2) 26,902 17,706 (65.8)
ASCVD, n (%)    <0.001    <0.001
 Yes 10,965 8,145 (74.3) 11,863 8,270 (69.7)
 Sub-clinical 8,487 5,749 (67.7) 9,029 6,047 (67.0)
 No 10,912 8,003 (73.3) 11,846 7,803 (65.9)
BMI, n (%)    0.029    0.040
 ≤30 17,602 12,607 (71.6) 19,014 12,939 (68.1)
 >30 12,672 9,221 (72.8) 13,624 9,124 (67.0)
Randomized drug, n (%)    0.028    <0.001
 Chlorthalidone 13,890 10,075 (72.5) 14,975 10,255 (68.5)
 Amlodipine 8,275 6,002 (72.5) 8,875 6,094 (68.7)
 Lisinopril 8,199 5,820 (71.0) 8,888 5,771 (64.9)
  1. *Medication Adherence is defined as poor adherence if the patient reported taking “Less than 80 % of the Step 1 medication” at any visit and adequate adherence otherwise
  2. †Visit Adherence is defined as poor adherence if the patient attended < 80 % of scheduled visits within the study window and adequate adherence if they attended  ≥ 80 % of scheduled visits within the study window