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Table 6 Results of the multivariate regression analysis of the impact of physician dispensing (PD) on physician services

From: Physician drug dispensing in Switzerland: association on health care expenditures and utilization

Target variable Number of GP visits Number of specialist visits Probability of a physician visit Physician expenditures if > 0
Specification Glm, log link negative binom. fam. Glm, log link negative binom. fam. Probit Glm, log link gamma family
PD 1.05 (0.008)*** 1.065 (0.01)*** 0.444 (0.014)*** 1.02 (0.087)*
Age 1.002 (0)*** 0.997 (0)*** −0.004 (0)*** 1.003 (0)***
Gender = m 0.955 (0.006)*** 0.826 (0.008)*** −0.12 (0.013)*** 0.95 (0.008)***
PPO-contract 1.043 (0.012)*** 1.001 (0.017) 0.072 (0.025)** 0.989 (0.014)
Telemedicine contract 1 (0.011) 1.055 (0.015)*** 0.065 (0.02)** 1.022 (0.013)
HMO contract 1.032 (0.008)*** 0.988 (0.011) 0.114 (0.016)*** 0.981 (0.009)*
High deductible 0.882 (0.008)*** 0.864 (0.01)*** −0.14 (0.015)*** 0.921 (0.009)***
Cost in previous year (log) 1.06 (0.002)*** 1.153 (0.003)*** 0.649 (0.053)*** 1.447 (0.022)***
Nursing home stay 1.334 (0.016)*** - 0.044 (0.003)*** 1.068 (0.002)***
Outpatient hospital vistis 1-5 0.889 (0.016)*** 1.559 (0.026)*** 0.339 (0.063)*** 0.777 (0.018)***
Outpatient hospital vistis >5 1.313 (0.01)*** 1.365 (0.015)*** 0.406 (0.021)*** 1.313 (0.012)***
Inpatient stay in hospital 1.303 (0.021)*** 1.259 (0.029)*** 0.314 (0.055)*** 1.238 (0.026)***
Prescriptions psychiatrists 0.409 (0.03)*** 4.687 (0.362)*** 0.238 (0.048)*** 3.488 (0.091)***
Prescriptions cardio-/angiologists 0.278 (0.006)*** 4.445 (0.091)*** −0.017 (0.102) 2.815 (0.221)***
Prescriptions gynaeologists 0.405 (0.01)*** 10.156 (0.266)*** 0.012 (0.029) 1.707 (0.033)***
Prescriptions other specialists 0.347 (0.004)*** 5.582 (0.072)*** 0.211 (0.02)*** 2.25 (0.027)***
Agricultural municipalities 0.821 (0.198) 1.45 (0.554) 0.153 (0.411) 1.06 (0.309)
Industrial and tertiary municipalities 0.921 (0.221) 1.533 (0.583) 0.114 (0.075) 1.011 (0.048)
Rural commuting municipalities 0.903 (0.217) 1.579 (0.601) 0.071 (0.077) 1.054 (0.051)
Touristic municipalities 0.742 (0.189) 1.49 (0.587) 0.094 (0.154) 1.123 (0.117)
Affluent municipalities 0.959 (0.229) 1.948 (0.739) 0.228 (0.067)*** 1.221 (0.052)***
Periurban municipalities 0.893 (0.213) 1.645 (0.624) 0.062 (0.066) 1.091 (0.046)*
Suburban municipalities 0.918 (0.219) 1.733 (0.657) 0.138 (0.064)* 1.123 (0.046)**
Urban centers 1.011 (0.242) 1.942 (0.736) 0.34 (0.064)*** 1.249 (0.052)***
22 pharmaceutical cost groups all coefficients strongly positive all coefficients strongly positive all coefficients strongly positive all coefficients strongly positive
  1. Target variable per patient, first 6 months of year 2013. Exponential of coefficients [exp(̂β)] displayed in columns 1,2,4
  2. Standard errors calculated by the delta method [ŝ exp(β) = exp(β)  ŝβ], displayed in parentheses
  3. Significance levels: ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05
  4. Source: Claims data from Helsana insurance company, own calculations