Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 5 Results of the multivariate regression analysis of the impact of physician dispensing (PD) on drug utilization

From: Physician drug dispensing in Switzerland: association on health care expenditures and utilization

Target variable Number of different active agents Share of generics Pharmaceutical expenditure Pharmaceutical exp. and pharmacists’ fees
Specification Glm, log link, negative binom. Family Logit glm, log link, gamma family glm, log link, gamma family
PD 1.025(0.004)*** 1.245(0.023)*** 0.928 (0.011)*** 0.86 (0.01)***
Age 1.002(0)*** 0.995(0.001)*** 1.004 (0)*** 1.004 (0)***
Gender = m 0.957(0.003)*** 1.18(0.02)*** 1.107 (0.013)*** 1.111 (0.013)***
PPO-contract 1.022(0.006)*** 0.992(0.031) 0.944 (0.019). 0.941 (0.019)**
Telemedicine contract 0.973(0.005)*** 0.994(0.026) 0.949 (0.017)*** 0.942 (0.016)***
HMO contract 0.996(0.004) 1.123(0.022)*** 0.935 (0.012)*** 0.927 (0.012)***
High deductible 0.871(0.004)*** 1.123(0.023)*** 0.803 (0.011)*** 0.801 (0.011)***
Cost in previous year (log) 1.049(0.001)*** 0.936(0.004)*** 1.171 (0.003)*** 1.170 (0.003)***
Nursing home stay 0.989(0.008) 0.962(0.063) 0.960 (0.033)* 0.968 (0.033)
Outpatient hospital visits 1-5 1.184(0.004)*** 0.846(0.019)*** 1.151 (0.016)*** 1.150 (0.016)***
Outpatient hospital visits > 5 1.182(0.009)*** 0.81(0.045)*** 1.198 (0.038)*** 1.201 (0.037)***
Inpatient stay in hospital 1.066(0.006)*** 0.782(0.032)*** 1.081 (0.025)*** 1.085 (0.024)***
Prescriptions psychiatrists 0.907(0.01) *** 1.125(0.065)* 1.814 (0.069)*** 1.775 (0.066)***
Prescriptions cardio-/angiologists 1.002(0.034) 0.603(0.099)** 1.163 (0.125)* 1.132 (0.119)***
Prescriptions gynaeologists 1.091(0.01)*** 0.311(0.016)*** 1.283 (0.035)*** 1.279 (0.034)***
Prescriptions other specialists 1.132(0.006)*** 0.478(0.013)*** 1.865 (0.032)*** 1.821 (0.03)***
Agricultural municipalities 1.067(0.147) 0.638(0.377) 1.005 (0.415) 1.012 (0.408)
Affluent municipalities 1.067(0.147) 0.573(0.049)*** 0.954 (0.058) 0.96 (0.057)
Industrial and tertiary municipalities 1.064(0.019)*** 0.917(0.086) 0.949 (0.064) 0.95 (0.063)
Rural commuting municipalities 1.048(0.021)* 0.825(0.08)* 1.002 (0.069) 1.002 (0.068)
Periurban municipalities 1.016(0.021) 0.813(0.068)* 0.952 (0.057) 0.956 (0.056)
Suburban municipalities 1.019(0.018) 0.691(0.056)*** 0.934 (0.055) 0.941 (0.054)
Touristic municipalities 1.052(0.018)** 0.883(0.195) 0.644 (0.095) 0.649 (0.094)**
Urban centers 0.961(0.044) 0.774(0.063)** 0.882 (0.052) 0.896 (0.052)
22 pharmaceutical cost groups all coefficients strongly positive most coefficients negative all coefficients strongly positive all coefficients strongly positive
  1. Target variable per patient, first 6 months of year 2013. Exponential of coefficients [exp(̂β)] displayed
  2. Standard errors calculated by the delta method [se exp(β) = exp(β)] se β, displayed in parentheses
  3. Significance levels: ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05
  4. Source: Claims data from Helsana insurance company, own calculations