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Table 3 Characteristics patients in physician dispensing (PD) group versus non-PD group, year 2013

From: Physician drug dispensing in Switzerland: association on health care expenditures and utilization

  Non-PD PD p-value
N 46,445 55,339  
Control variables, observed on 1.1.2013 [means and standard deviation or in %]  
Age 55.4 (19.02) 57.6 (19.37) 0.0***
Share of females 0.61 % 0.57 % 0.0***
Share of high deductibles 0.22 % 0.21 % 0.0***
Standard contract (non-managed care) 0.59 % 0.57 % 0.0***
Health care expenditure in previous year in Swiss francs 5,204 (8,516) 4,818 (8,704) 0.0***
Agricultural-mixed municipalities 0.4 % 1.2 % 0.0***
Agricultural municipalities 0.0 % 0.0 % 0.0***
Affluent municipalities 7.8 % 10.2 % 0.0***
Touristic municipalities 0.2 % 0.1 % 0.0***
Industrial and tertiary municipalities 1.3 % 3.1 % 0.0***
Rural commuting municipalities 1.0 % 2.5 % 0.0***
Periurban municipalities 5.5 % 14.0 % 0.0***
Suburban municipalities 25.4 % 53.6 % 0.0***
Urban centers 58.5 % 15.2 % 0.0***
Target variables, observed 1.1.2013 - 30.06.2013  
Pharmaceutical expenditure per patient in Swiss francs 538 (1,299) 469 (1,031) 0.0***
Share of generic drugs 19.3 % 24.6 % 0.0***
Number of different active agents per patient 5.40 5.68 0.0***
Number of GP visits per patient 2.73 3.13 0.0***
Number of specialist visits per patient 2.80 2.13 0.0***
Physician expenditure per patient in Swiss francs 816 (1,217) 753 (1,513) 0.0***
Health care expenditure per patient in Swiss francs 2,559 (4,536) 2,406 (4,876) 0.0***
  1. Source: Claims data from Helsana insurance company, own calculations, Standard deviations in parentheses