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Table 5 Characteristics of participant responses based on types of foods

From: Analysis of resources assisting in coping with swallowing difficulties for patients with Parkinson’s disease: a cross-sectional study

Foods Ordinary rice &/or only Porridge rice &/or only
  Care foods (n = 5) Only (n = 172) Processed side dishes (n = 30) Care foods (n = 6) Only (n = 24)  
Items mean ± S.D. mean ± S.D. mean ± S.D. mean ± S.D. mean ± S.D. p value
Age 78.3 ± 4.2 a 70.0 ± 8.3 a, b, c 72.8 ± 8.3 77.4 ± 3.6 b 76.3 ± 6.5 c a: 0.018, b: 0.017, c: 0.0004
PD duration 5.8 ± 4.4 7.6 ± 5.8 a, b 9.9 ± 7.0 a 9.2 ± 6.3 12.3 ± 9.7 b a: 0.049, b: 0.013
Score of SD 7.1 ± 3.8 a 5.9 ± 6.9 b, c, d 8.9 ± 8.0 b, e 18.2 ± 12.8 c 16.8 ± 9.8 a, d, e a: 0.04. b: 0.013, c: 0.015, d: <0.0001, e: 0.003,
BMI 23.4 ± 3.4 a 22.7 ± 3.7 b 22.0 ± 3.3 21.2 ± 3.2 20.4 ± 3.2 a, b a: 0.035, b: 0.003
Modified H&Y scale 4.2 ± 1.3 4.1 ± 1.4 a, b, c 5.0 ± 1.3 a 5.8 ± 0.8 b 5.3 ± 1.3 c a: 0.001, b: 0.002, c: 0.0005
  1. S.D.: Standard Deviation
  2. a, b, c, d and e show values where statistical significance as per the p values in the very right hand column is reached