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Table 1 Summary of included studies

From: Systematic review of the health and societal effects of medication organisation devices

First Author Year Design Location Condition Setting Age (mean, (range)) Type of MOD (format) Comparator MOD filled by Total n
Becker [20] 1986 RCT USA Hypertension Hospital Outpatient nr Sealed. 28 consecutive-dose foil backed blisters (7x4). Packs were perforated so that blisters could be detached. Standard packaging (bottles) Automatic device 165
Carruthers [32] 2008 Audit Australia Mixed Care Home nr Sealed. 28 consecutive-dose foil backed blisters (7x4). Websterpaks n/a Pharmacy nr *
Crome [27] 1982 RCT UK Mixed Hospital Inpatient 80.29 (68-98) Unsealed, 28 consecutive-dose compartments (7x4). Dosett® Standard packaging (bottles) Unclear 78
Feetam [21] 1982 Prospective UK Mental Illness Community 42.40 (18-68) Unsealed, 28 consecutive-dose compartments (7x4). Can be divided into single days for convenience. Medidos® Standard packaging (bottles) Unclear 10
Huang [23] 2000 RCT USA Vitamin supplements in healthy volunteers Community 58.00 (nr) Unsealed. Seven consecutive-dose compartments (7x1). Standard packaging (bottles) Patient 183
Huang [23] 2000 RCT USA Vitamin supplements in healthy volunteers Community 65.00 (nr) Unsealed. Seven consecutive-dose compartments (7x1). Standard packaging (bottles) Patient 291
Levings [33] 1999 Audit Australia Mixed Community 78.00 (nr) nr nr Various nr Ɨ
MacIntosh [28] 2007 RCT Canada Cancer Hospital Outpatient 64.00 (42-81) Unsealed. 14 consecutive-dose compartments (7x2) Standard packaging (nr) Researcher 21
McElnay [19] 1992 Cross-section UK None Community nr Unsealed, 28 consecutive-dose compartments, various format: Medisystem® (7 of 4x1); Medidos® (7x4), Supercel (7x4, pouches); Dosett®(7x4); Pill Mill® (1x28, wheel-type); Medi-wheel® (4 of 7x1, stacked wheel-type). n/a Pharmacist/ technician 6
Petersen [24] 2007 Prospective USA HIV Community 44.00
(38-49)
nr Standard packaging (bottles) n/s 269
Rehder [25] 1980 RCT USA Hypertension Hospital Outpatient 51.35 (31-69) Unsealed, 28 consecutive-dose compartments Mediset®(7x4) Standard packaging (bottles) Pharmacy 50
Roberts [18] 2004 Multiple Australia Mixed Community 76.80 nr n/a Pharmacy 353
Ryan-Woolley [29] 2005 RCT UK Mixed Care Home 78.80 (67-92) unclear Standard packaging (nr) Pharmacy 62
Simmons [26] 2000 RCT New Zealand Diabetes Community 54.06 (nr) Sealed. 28 consecutive-dose foil backed blisters (7x4). Standard packaging (nr) Pharmacy 68
Skaer [31] 1993 RCT USA Diabetes Pharmacy 51.74 Sealed Standard packaging (nr) Pharmacy or researcher 131
Skaer [30] 1993 RCT USA Hypertension Pharmacy 56.49 (nr) Sealed Standard packaging (nr) Pharmacy or researcher 163
Stewart [34] 2001 Cross-section UK Mixed Community nr nr n/a Nurses 96
Wong [22] 1987 RCT USA Mixed Community 79.00 (66-90) Sealed.^ 31 non-consecutive-dose foil-backed compartments. Each card serves one daily time point for one month e.g. breakfast. Standard packaging (bottles) Pharmacy or researcher 17
  1. Unsealed=resealable/reuseable rigid plastic with sliding or flip-top lids usually filled by patient; Sealed=heat or cold sealed with foil or paper, usually filled in pharmacy; n/a = not applicable; nr = not reported or insufficient detail; * Audit of 2480 patients’ Webster-paks™ at aged care facilities in New South Wales( 6972 packs were audited); Ɨ Study explored errors reported in the Australian Incident Monitoring Study, with analysis based on the 52 incidents involving MODs. ^ 31 compartments per card marked with days of the month. Only one compartment per day. Card marked with e.g. breakfast or dinner. A number of cards needed per patient on any one day