Skip to main content

Table 3 Differences in health worker views on the NHIS in treatment and control facilities

From: Perspectives of frontline health workers on Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme before and after community engagement interventions

   Baseline (2012) Follow-up (2014) Diff-in-Diff
   Control Treated Diff(BL) Control Treated Diff(FU)  
Factor-analyzed variablesa bObs Mean(SE) Mean(SE) Mean(SE) Mean(SE) Mean(SE) Mean(SE) Mean(SE)
Perspectives on NHIS
 Feedback channels and stakeholder engagement 415 1.80 (0.19) 1.77(0.21) −0.04(0.10) 1.70(0.20) 1.70(0.20) 0.00(0.10) 0.04(0.13)
 Information provision, adequacy, accessibility 75 2.10(0.41) 1.81(0.44) −0.24(0.18) 1.79(0.460 1.91(0.45) 0.11(0.22) 0.35(0.24)
 Availability and quality of drugs covered by NHIS 429 2.64(0.21) 2.51(0.23) −0.13(0.10) 2.51(0.20) 2.71(0.20) 0.20(0.09)** 0.33(0.14)**
 Reimbursements and benefits package 200 1.55(0.22) 1.49(0.21) −0.06(0.07) 1.55(0.22) 1.49(0.21) −0.06(0.07) 0.00(0.00)
 Trustworthiness and complaint handling 412 2.30(0.19) 2.25(0.22) −0.05(0.09) 2.31(0.21) 2.40(0.21) 0.09(0.090) 0.14(0.11)
Overall perception score 40 2.37(0.55) 2.30(0.58) −0.07(0.17) 2.37(0.58) 2.30(0.58) −0.07(0.17) 0.00(0.00)
NHIS impact on quality care
 Workload and impact on health resources 421 1.82(0.21) 2.01(0.21) 0.19(0.08)** 1.67(0.23) 1.79(0.22) 0.12(0.07)* −0.07(0.10)
 Client waiting time and queuing system 425 0.95(0.11) 0.97(0.11) 0.02(0.05) 0.91(0.10) 0.97(0.10) 0.06(0.07) 0.05(0.10)
 Quality of time spent per client 419 1.30(0.24) 1.39(0.28) 0.09(0.09) 1.25(0.25) 1.29(0.24) 0.05(0.06) −0.05(0.12)
Overall perceived impact 419 1.53(0.13) 1.65(0.14) 0.13(0.06)** 1.42(0.13) 1.51(0.13) 0.09(0.05)* −0.04(0.08)
  1. Source: WOTRO-COHEiSION Ghana Project (2014); Diff.-in-diff estimates*p < 0.1; **p < 0.05. Note: Means and SE are bootstrapped and estimated by linear regression & all mean and SE values rounded up to the nearest decimal
  2. Legend: SE Standard Error, FU Follow-up survey, BL Baseline survey
  3. aMotivation factors have been factor-analyzed
  4. bObservations are the pooled responses of staff at baseline and follow-up