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Table 2 Profile of health workers interviewed in intervention and control facilities

From: Perspectives of frontline health workers on Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme before and after community engagement interventions

   Intervention Control  
Staff characteristics bObs. aMean (Std. Dev.) aMean (Std. Dev.) p-value
Age 213 37.4(13.1) 37.6(13.1) 0.9129
Gender Obs. Proportion (95 % CI) Proportion (95 % CI)  
 Males 468 39.5 (33.0 46.1) 30.4 (24.7 36.1) 0.039**
 Females   60.5 (53.9 67.0) 69.6 (63.9 75.3)  
Education
 Below tertiary 468 27.9 (21.9 33.9) 20.6 (15.6 25.6) 0.063*
 Tertiary   72.1 (66.1 78.1) 79.4 (74.4 84.4)  
Professional category
 Clinical staffc 468 74.4 (68.6 80.3) 76.3 (71.0 81.5) 0.640
 Non-clinical staffd   25.6 (19.7 31.4) 23.7 (18.5 29.0)  
Marital status
 Married 465 43.9 (37.2 50.6) 45.0 (38.8 51.2) 0.813
 Not married   56.1 (49.4 62.8) 55.0 (48.8 61.2)  
Religion
 Christian 466 96.7 (94.3 99.1) 95.6 (93.1 98.2) 0.541
 Other   3.3 (0.9 5.7) 4.4 (1.8 6.9)  
Monthly salary
 >GHC 1,300 458 7.1 (3.6 10.5) 10.2 (6.4 14.0) 0.243
 <GHC 1,300   92.9 (89.5 96.4) 89.8 (86.0 93.6)  
Belong to professional association
 Yes 320 61.0 (52.9 69.1) 70.4 (63.7 77.1) 0.078*
 No   39.0 (30.9 47.1) 29.6 (22.9 36.3)  
Region of work
 Greater Accra 468 51.2 (44.4 57.9) 51.8 (45.6 58.0) 0.894
 Western   48.8 (42.1 55.6) 48.2 (42.0 54.4)  
Clinic ownership
 Private 468 59.1 (52.5 65.7) 47.4 (41.2 53.6) 0.012**
 Public   40.9 (34.3 47.5) 52.6 (46.4 58.8)  
Health insurance status
 Insured 452 76.4 (70.6 82.2) 78.3 (73.1 83.5) 0.642
 Uninsured   23.6 (17.8 29.4) 21.7 (16.5 26.9)  
  1. Source: WOTRO-COHEiSION Ghana Project (2014); **Pearson Chi-square test significant (p < 0.05); *Pearson Chi-square test significant (p < 0.1)
  2. aMean testing done with the paired t-test at 95 % confidence level
  3. bObservations are the pooled responses of staff at baseline and follow-up
  4. cStaff who performed clinical roles; dstaff who performed non-clinical roles