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Table 1 Rates of invasive pneumococcal disease and all-cause pneumonia among healthy, at risk, and high-risk persons

From: Rates and costs of invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumonia in persons with underlying medical conditions

     Invasive Pneumococcal Disease All cause pneumonia
  No. of person-years Age <18 years Age 18–64 years Age ≥65 years Age <18 years Age 18–64 years Age ≥65 years
  Age <18 years Age 18–64 years Age ≥65 years Rate per 100 K Rate ratiosa (95 % CI) Rate per 100 K Rate ratiosa (95 % CI) Rate per 100 K Rate ratiosa (95 % CI) Rate per 100 K Rate ratiosa (95 % CI) Rate per 100 K Rate ratiosa (95 % CI) Rate per 100 K Rate ratiosa (95 % CI)
Risk Group                
Healthy 24,406,759 63,445,448 5,389,930 2.5 -- 2.7 -- 8.3 -- 587 -- 458 -- 1874 --
At-Risk 2,002,374 13,368,935 4,579,505 5.9 2.4 (2.0–2.9) 9.3 3.4 (3.2–3.7) 23.0 2.8 (2.5–3.1) 1801 3.1 (3.0–3.1) 1652 3.6 (3.6–3.6) 5662 3.0 (3.0–3.0)
 Alcoholism 4591 333,634 23,905 0.0 -- 20.4 7.5 (5.9–9.6) 41.8 5.0 (2.7–9.4) 501 0.9 (0.6–1.3) 2109 4.6 (4.5–4.7) 7400 3.9 (3.8–4.1)
 Asthma 1,252,480 2,185,510 362,183 3.7 1.5 (1.1–2.0) 9.6 3.6 (3.1–4.1) 34.2 4.1 (3.4–5.0) 1718 2.9 (2.9–3.0) 2078 4.5 (4.5–4.6) 8570 4.6 (4.5–4.6)
 Chronic heart disease 136,206 3,082,998 2,363,798 13.9 5.7 (3.6–8.9) 11.5 4.3 (3.8–4.8) 26.6 3.2 (2.8–3.6) 3699 6.3 (6.1–6.5) 2533 5.5 (5.5–5.6) 7100 3.8 (3.8–3.8)
 Chronic liver disease 3759 292,697 50,540 26.6 10.8 (1.5–76.7) 24.6 9.1 (7.2–11.5) 53.4 6.4 (4.4–9.5) 3910 6.7 (5.7–7.8) 3002 6.6 (6.4–6.7) 7742 4.1 (4.0–4.3)
 Chronic lung disease 192,731 1,251,143 882,061 8.3 3.4 (2.0–5.5) 27.0 10.0 (8.9–11.2) 51.1 6.2 (5.4–7.0) 3488 5.9 (5.8–6.1) 4802 10.5 (10.4–10.6) 12,379 6.6 (6.6–6.7)
 Chronic use of oral steroids 22,508 275,267 65,775 13.3 5.4 (1.7–16.8) 8.0 3.0 (1.9–4.5) 15.2 1.8 (1.0–3.4) 1080 1.8 (1.6–2.1) 1164 2.5 (2.5–2.6) 3696 2.0 (1.9–2.1)
 Diabetes 88,848 5,721,158 2,267,133 5.6 2.3 (0.9–5.5) 9.5 3.5 (3.2–3.9) 21.1 2.5 (2.2–2.9) 808 1.4 (1.3–1.5) 1683 3.7 (3.6–3.7) 5266 2.8 (2.8–2.8)
 Down’s syndrome 20,657 7649 63 19.4 7.9 (2.9–21.0) 13.1 4.8 (0.7–34.4) 0.0 -- 5514 9.4 (8.9–10.0) 2915 6.4 (5.6–7.3) 6316 3.4 (1.3–9.0)
 Neuromuscular/seizure disorders 193,657 507,134 104,864 11.9 4.8 (3.2–7.3) 12.8 4.7 (3.7–6.1) 38.1 4.6 (3.3–6.3) 2536 4.3 (4.2–4.4) 2254 4.9 (4.8–5.0) 8539 4.6 (4.5–4.7)
 Short gestation/low birthweight 249,576 34,580 90 12.0 4.9 (3.4–7.0) 5.8 2.1 (0.5–8.6) 0.0 -- 2768 4.7 (4.6–4.8) 581 1.3 (1.1–1.5) 8864 4.7 (2.4–9.5)
 Rheumatoid arthritis/Crohn’s/Lupus -- 579,373 162,206 -- -- 17.8 6.6 (5.4–8.0) 33.3 4.0 (3.0–5.3) -- -- 2131 4.7 (4.6–4.7) 6465 3.5 (3.4–3.5)
 Smokers 5019 2,128,945 180,504 0.0 -- 12.5 4.6 (4.1–5.3) 34.9 4.2 (3.2–5.5) 777 1.3 (1.0–1.8) 1858 4.1 (4.0–4.1) 6691 3.6 (3.5–3.6)
High-Risk 119,692 3,062,400 1,774,181 48.5 19.6 (15.0–25.7) 26.3 9.7 (9.0–10.6) 36.7 4.4 (3.9–5.0) 3757 6.4 (6.2–6.6) 3094 6.8 (6.7–6.8) 7594 4.1 (4.0–4.1)
 Chronic renal failure 17,112 356,088 344,160 64.3 26.1 (14.4–47.3) 47.2 17.5 (14.9–20.5) 50.0 6.0 (5.0–7.2) 4202 7.2 (6.7–7.7) 5566 12.2 (12.0–12.3) 11,873 6.3 (6.3–6.4)
 Cochlear implant 1989 2517 1144 50.3 20.4 (2.9–145.0) 0.0 -- 87.4 10.5 (1.5–74.8) 2062 3.5 (2.6–4.8) 1708 3.7 (2.8–5.0) 4544 2.4 (1.8–3.2)
 Congenital immunodeficiency 21,047 76,771 14,392 42.8 17.3 (9.0–33.5) 87.3 32.3 (25.3–41.2) 118.1 14.2 (8.8–23.1) 4409 7.5 (7.0–8.0) 5919 12.9 (12.6–13.3) 14,738 7.9 (7.5–8.2)
 Diseases of white blood cells 15,493 149,802 46,869 122.6 49.7 (31.5–78.5) 62.1 23.0 (18.6–28.3) 110.9 13.3 (10.0–17.8) 6048 10.3 (9.7–11.0) 6797 14.8 (14.6–15.1) 13,262 7.1 (6.9–7.3)
 Functional/anatomic asplenia 19,321 109,298 42,976 119.0 48.3 (31.8–73.2) 93.3 34.5 (28.3–42.2) 116.3 14.0 (10.5–18.7) 8566 14.6 (13.9–15.3) 8721 19.0 (18.7–19.4) 15,976 8.5 (8.3–8.7)
 HIV 1484 193,184 7306 0.0 -- 46.6 17.2 (13.9–21.3) 27.4 3.3 (0.8–13.2) 2291 3.9 (2.8–5.5) 2457 5.4 (5.2–5.5) 6461 3.4 (3.2–3.8)
 Immuno. conditions/drugs 63,702 2,495,776 1,523,021 54.9 22.3 (15.8–31.3) 24.4 9.0 (8.2–9.9) 36.4 4.4 (3.9–5.0) 3595 6.1 (5.9–6.4) 3146 6.9 (6.8–6.9) 7248 3.9 (3.8–3.9)
  1. aRelative to healthy counterparts