Skip to main content

Table 4 Descriptive Statistics

From: National estimates of the impact of electronic health records on the workload of primary care physicians

Variables All visits Visits with basic EHR Visits with no basic EHR
Dependent/key independent variables    
 Patient face time in minutes (SD) 19.27 (11.37) 20.44 (12.21) 18.97 (11.12)
 Number of physician’s patient visits per weeka (SD) 69.25 (44.50) 67.50 (35.65) 69.68 (46.45)
 Basic EHR use 0.207 1 0
 Physician age (SD) 48.97 (10.39) 47.30 (9.61) 49.40 (10.54)
Patient’s characteristics    
 Patient age (SD) 47.49 (21.80) 47.76 (22.13) 47.42 (21.71)
 Female 0.594 0.596 0.594
 Race/ethnicity:    
  White, Non-Hispanic 0.644 0.714 0.626
  Black, Non-Hispanic 0.135 0.104 0.144
  Hispanic 0.093 0.085 0.095
  Other race, Non-Hispanic 0.128 0.097 0.136
Patient’s health status    
 Major reason for visit:    
  New problem 0.409 0.421 0.405
  Chronic problem 0.388 0.375 0.392
  Pre/post surgery or preventive care 0.203 0.205 0.203
 Related to injury/poisoning/adverse effect 0.294 0.211 0.316
 Bad disposition (Refer to ED/admit to hospital) 0.007 0.005 0.008
 Wound care 0.023 0.022 0.023
 Number of new medications (SD) 0.77 (1.06) 0.85 (1.12) 0.74 (1.04)
 Number of chronic conditions (SD) 1.38 (1.45) 1.42 (1.48) 1.36 (1.45)
Visit’s characteristics    
 Visit to own primary care physician 0.810 0.773 0.820
 Referred visit 0.024 0.029 0.023
 Primary source of payment:    
  Private insurance 0.433 0.516 0.412
  Medicare 0.221 0.220 0.221
  Medicaid 0.155 0.103 0.168
  Other 0.192 0.161 0.199
 New patient 0.099 0.107 0.096
 Number of visits in last 12 months:    
  No visit in last 12 months 0.113 0.133 0.107
  1 visit in last 12 months 0.125 0.144 0.120
  2 visit in last 12 months 0.178 0.158 0.183
  3 or more visit in last 12 months 0.585 0.565 0.590
 Weekend visits 0.017 0.022 0.016
 Seen also by non-MD clinician 0.469 0.466 0.469
Physician characteristics    
 Ownership:    
  Physician or physician group 0.565 0.493 0.584
  HMO 0.020 0.069 0.008
  Community health center 0.275 0.184 0.299
  Other type of ownership 0.139 0.254 0.110
 Solo practice 0.263 0.140 0.295
 Type of office setting:    
  Private practice 0.654 0.683 0.646
  Free standing 0.038 0.060 0.032
  Community health center 0.285 0.198 0.307
  HMO 0.016 0.053 0.006
  Other type of office setting 0.008 0.007 0.009
Physician’s incentive to change patient face time    
 Over 50 % of revenue from capitation 0.039 0.059 0.034
 Over 50 % of revenue from managed care contract 0.286 0.389 0.259
 Over 50 % of revenue from case rate 0.018 0.013 0.020
Other covariates    
 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) 0.850 0.885 0.841
 Geographic region:    
  Northeast 0.177 0.159 0.182
  Midwest 0.262 0.236 0.269
  South 0.325 0.304 0.330
  West 0.236 0.302 0.219
 Survey year:    
  2006 0.239 0.129 0.268
  2007 0.247 0.223 0.253
  2008 0.247 0.277 0.239
  2009 0.267 0.371 0.239
N (Patient visits) 39,229 8105 31,124
N (Physicians)a 1470 293 1177
  1. Note: Standard deviations are in parentheses
  2. aNumber of physician’s patient visits per week is in the physician level whereas all other variables are in the visit level