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Table 1 The phenomenon of doctor managers in 19 OECD countries

From: The involvement of medical doctors in hospital governance and implications for quality management: a quick scan in 19 and an in depth study in 7 OECD countries

Country MDs in Top Management Team Formalized interaction between MDs and TM Formalization into force since MDs involvement in TM tasks Type of tasks MDs role in TM decisions
Belgium Medical doctors YES 1987 YES mostly advisory Consultative
Economists
Managers
Nurses
Jurist
Czech Republic Medical doctors YES 2012 YES all - most managers are MD Decisional
Managers
Denmark Medical doctors YES 1990 YES support the development of clinical indicators & practice guidelines; education; human resources; Decisional
Economists
Managers
Nurses
England Economists NO N/A YES depending on internal processes and regulation; nothing standardized
Finance
France Medical doctors YES - YES e.g. infection management Decisional (in practice)
Managers Consultative (in theory)
Germany Medical doctors YES - NO N/A Consultative
Economists
Managers
Academia - where the case
Israel Medical doctors YES 2009 YES National Programme of Quality Indicators Consultative
Economists
Italy Medical doctors NO N/A YES only at a medical unit level Consultative
Managers
Luxemburg Medical doctors YES 1998 YES coordination of medical interdepartmental activities Consultative
Economists
Nurses
Poland Medical doctors YES 1998 YES advisory and decisional Decisional
Managers Consultative
Portugal Medical doctors YES many years ago YES e.g. infection control Decisional
Economists
Managers  
Nurses Consultative
Legal
Slovenia Medical doctors NO N/A YES e.g. delivery of services, volume of services, waiting times; Consultative
Economists
Spain Medical doctors YES - depends on the region 2006 YES local guidelines Decisional
Managers
Sweden Medical doctors NO - in most regions N/A YES e.g. setting Quality Indicators and guidelines Consultative
Managers
Turkey Medical doctors NO N/A YES all hospital management task Decisional
Economists
Japan Medical doctors YES 2000 YES CEO Decisional
Singapore Medical doctors YES 2009 YES almost all hospital management task Decisional
Managers
South Korea Medical doctors YES - only in large hospitals 2000 YES e.g. most decisions on hi-tech acquisitions and quality assessment Decisional
Managers - rarely
Canada Medical doctors YES 2003–2008 YES almost all hospital management task Consultative
Economists
Managers
Epidemiologists