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Table 1 Articles analysis

From: Clinical leadership and hospital performance: assessing the evidence base

Study Setting Type of organisation Type of analysis Sample size Leadership position Performance dimension Performance proxy Effect Emerging Stream
Bai [44] US Private (for-profit) hospitals Cross-sectional analysis 137 BoDa Non-financial Community Benefits (uncompensated care cost, net education expense, and net research expense, scaled by hospital gross patient revenues) + Social Performance
Bai and Krishnan [36] US Private (not-for-profit) hospitals Cross-sectional analysis 142 BoD Non-financial Quality of Care (process of care quality rating) + Social Performance
Brickley et al. [47] US Private (not-for-profit) hospitals Cross-sectional analysis 228 BoD Financial Donations Social Performance
De Andrade Costa [45] US Private (not-for-profit) hospitals
Private (for-profit) hospitals
Longitudinal data analysis 281 BoD Non-financial Community Benefits (uncompensated care) + Social Performance
Goes and Zhan [29] US Private (for-profit) hospitals Longitudinal data analysis 300 BoD Financial Operational Profitability (operating margin)
Occupancy (average daily occupancy)
Hospital Costs (operating expenses/1000 patient-days)
+ Management of financial and operational resources
Goldstein and Ward [33] US Public hospitals
Private (for-profit) hospitals
Private (not-for-profit) hospitals
Cross-sectional analysis 200 Executives Non-financial Operational Efficiency (occupancy rate, market share) + Management of financial and operational resources
Goodall et al. [37] US Private (for-profit) hospitals
Private (not-for-profit) hospitals
Cross-sectional analysis 10 CEO Non-financial Reputation with specialists (survey) + Quality of care
Goodall [7] US Public hospitals
Private (for-profit) hospitals
Private (not-for-profit) hospitals
Cross-sectional analysis 100 CEO Non-financial Index of Hospital Quality in the area of Hospital Structure (availability of resources), Outcomes (mortality rate, patient safety index) and Process (reputation scores based on survey) + Quality of care
Jiang et al. [15] US Public hospitals
Private (for-profit) hospitals
Private (not-for-profit) hospitals
Cross-sectional analysis 490 Quality Committee Non-financial Quality of Care Process (20 measures covering heart attack, heart failure, pneumonia, and surgical infection prevention)
Quality of Care Outcomes (mortality rate in the area of heart attack, heart failure, pneumonia)
+ Quality of care
Kuntz and Scholtes [40] Germany Public hospitals Cross-sectional analysis 604 MDb Non-financial Clinical Quality (nurses-to-patients ratio and physicians-to-patients ratio). + Quality of care
Molinari et al. [30] US Public hospitals
Private (for-profit) hospitals
Private (not-for-profit) hospitals
Cross-sectional analysis 190 BoD Financial Profitability (hospital operating margin, net income to patient revenues, return on total asset)
Liquidity (days in accounts receivable)
Capital Structure (long-term debt to total assets, bad debt and charity)
Capital Intensity (net plant, property and equipment per bed; hospital occupancy rate)
+ Management of financial and operational resources
Molinari et al. [31] US Private (for-profit) hospitals Cross-sectional analysis 190 BoD Financial Profitability (operating margin) + Management of financial and operational resources
Prybil [32] US Public hospitals
Private (for-profit) hospital
Cross-sectional analysis 14 BoD Financial & Non-Financial Quality of Care rating (mortality index, complications index, patient safety index, core measures score, readmission rate, length of stay, case-mix and wage-adjusted inpatient expense per adjusted discharge)
Profitability (operating profit margin)
Patient Satisfaction (patient ratings)
+ Management of financial and operational resources
Quality of care
Sarto et al. [22] Italy Public hospitals Cross-sectional analysis 96 CEO Financial & Non-Financial Profitability (operating margin)
Financial Efficiency (expenses-to-beds ratio)
Quality of care (appropriateness)
Efficiency of care (length of stay)
+/− Management of financial and operational resources
Quality of care
Schultz and Pal [38] US Private integrated healthcare organisations Simulation Study 2 CEO Financial & Non-Financial Profitability (net income)
Quality of Care
nd Management of financial and operational resources
Quality of care
Succi and Alexander [21] US Public hospitals
Private (for-profit) hospitals
Private (not-for-profit) hospitals
Cross-sectional analysis 1,220 BoD
Executives
Financial Operational Efficiency (ratio of total operating expenses divided by adjusted hospital admissions) Management of financial and operational resources
Veronesi et al. [12] UK Public hospitals Cross-sectional analysis 102 BoD Non-Financial Quality of care rate (compliance with core standards in the area of health and well-being, clinical effectiveness, safety and patient focus, ease and equity of access) + Quality of care
Veronesi et al. [14] UK Public hospitals Cross-sectional analysis 102 BoD Financial Financial resources management (quality of the financial resource management rating) + Management of financial and operational resources
Veronesi et al. [39] UK Public hospitals Cross-sectional analysis 99 BoD Non-Financial Patient Satisfaction Rate (labour access, coordination, information, relationships and comfort) + Quality of care
  1. a BoD Board of Directors
  2. b MD Medical Director