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Table 3 Mean annual cost (USD) of multiple sclerosis according to disability level

From: Cost analysis of multiple sclerosis in Brazil: a cross-sectional multicenter study

  Mild (EDSS 0–3) Moderate (EDSS 4–6.5) Severe (EDSS 7–9) Totala P value*
(n = 84) (n = 91) (n = 33) (n = 210)
A - Resources funded by the health system, except drugs for treating MS  
Inpatient care      
 Mean 42.44 82.74 27.95 57.82 0.025
 SD 127.05 185.01 82.40 150.78  
Emergency service      
 Mean 4.98 8.39 2.61 6.04 0.297
 SD 11.95 28.49 6.71 20.45  
Consultations (visits to physicians and other healthcare professionals)      
 Mean 211.84 530.43 1038.29 478.08 0.001
 SD 423.80 897.53 1225.55 853.99  
Complementary exams      
 Mean 126.96 145.63 86.10 128.69 0.019
 SD 149.03 179.08 96.32 156.41  
Adjuvant drugs      
 Mean 84.56 173.98 2527.71 506.48 0.040
 SD 194.46 368.22 12,174.82 4851.34  
Total A      
 Mean 470.80 941.17 3682.67 1177.10 <0.001
 SD 578.59 1166.34 12,327.31 5020.98  
B - Drugs for treating Multiple Sclerosis – DMTsb  
 Mean 17,283.59 17,409.30 10,545.01 16,257.60 <0.001
 SD 8118.31 6760.00 8853.87 7982.50  
C - Resources funded by the patient  
Non-prescribed drugs (OTC medication)      
 Mean 45.84 75.04 93,29 65.51 0.754
 SD 136.62 226.18 303,62 209.56  
Investment and equipment      
 Mean 416.71 451.84 2949.64 826.23 0.912
 SD 2087.26 2148.73 7343.50 3580.73  
Professional caregiver      
 Mean 258.14 493.48 2274.97 685.88 0.036
 SD 947.76 1190.69 5279.98 2395.80  
Total C      
 Mean 720.68 1020.37 5317.90 1577.62 0.010
 SD 2339.49 2520.58 9670.85 4678.00  
Total cost      
 Mean 18,475.08 19,370.84 19,545.57 19,012.32 0.398
 SD 8256.02 7509.87 19,445.75 10,465.96  
  1. MS Multiple Sclerosis; DMTs Disease modifying therapies; EDSS Expanded Disability Status Scale; OTC over the counter; SD standard deviation
  2. *Significant at 0.05 Kruskal-Wallis/ANOVA tests; Values in bold represent the total cost of each category (A, B and C)
  3. aTwo patients who presented no information for EDSS level are represented only on total. All analyses were made considering the total sample or total sample in each group
  4. bDMTs: Interferon beta-1a, Interferon beta-1b, Glatiramer acetate and Natalizumab