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Table 3 Summary of characteristics of study population, 2013

From: Factors predicting health services use among older people in China: An analysis of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study 2013

Variables Values Frequency Unweighted % Weighted %
Total Aged 45 + 18246 100 100
Age group Aged 45–54 5920 32.5 33.4
Aged 55–64 6694 36.8 35.2
Aged 65–74 3736 20.5 20.5
Aged 75+ 1855 10.2 10.2
Gender Male 8807 48.3 48.4
Female 9428 51.7 51.6
Education Under primary school 8182 44.9 44.9
School without degree 9633 52.8 52.9
College and above degrees 414 2.3 2.2
Communist party member Yes 1987 10.9 10.7
No 16212 89.1 89.3
Marital status Married with spouse present 14764 81.0 78.7
Married with spouse away 1035 5.7 6.2
Separated/Divorced/Widowed 2273 12.5 14.2
Single 155 0.9 1.0
Ethic group Han 16787 92.4 92.4
Minorities 1374 7.6 7.6
Residence Rural 10881 59.7 58.7
Urban 7361 40.4 41.3
Household registration Agricultural 13893 76.4 76.6
Non-agricultural 4090 22.5 22.3
Other 211 1.2 1.2
Relative living standard Better 503 3.9 3.6
About same 3595 27.7 28.1
Worse 8891 68.5 68.4
  Not reported 5253   
Health insurance Government 253 1.4 1.3
  Urban employee 2150 12.0 11.7
  Urban resident 904 5.0 5.2
  New rural cooperative 12939 72.2 72.0
  Commercial 393 2.2 2.2
  Other types 555 3.1 3.2
  No medical insurance 730 4.1 4.4
Physical examinations in the last 18 months Yes 6444 36.7 36.8
No 11118 63.3 63.2
Seeing a doctor in the last month when ill Yes 3773 21.0 21.4
No 1700 9.3 9.2
Not applicable 12502 69.6 69.4
Inpatient care in the last year if necessary Yes 2134 11.8 12.1
No 900 5.0 4.7
Not applicable 15042 83.2 83.3
Number of diseases No chronic disease 4846 32.6 33.7
One chronic disease 4430 29.8 29.9
Two chronic diseases 2844 19.2 18.6
Three and more chronic diseases 2728 18.4 17.8
Not reported 3394   
Any physical disability Yes 539 3.1 3.0
No 16908 96.9 97.0
Any functional loss Yes 2047 11.3 10.9
No 16030 88.7 89.1
Perceived health Good and above 4276 23.7 23.9
Fair 8863 49.1 49.2
Poor 4358 24.2 23.8
Very poor 550 3.1 3.0
Any ADL limitation Yes 1114 8.9 9.4
No 11360 91.1 90.6
Not reported 5621   
Depression No 13087 86.6 87.1
Mild/Moderate 1585 10.5 10.1
Major 443 2.9 2.8
Not reported 2980   
Fair/poor memory Yes 13520 83.1 82.4
No 2751 16.9 17.6
Pain None 10545 64.3 65.2
A little 2915 17.8 17.6
Some 1383 8.4 8.3
Quite a bit 1051 6.4 6.1
A lot 519 3.2 2.9
Not reported 1829   
Smokers Current a smoker 2938 20.1 20.3
Former a smoker 1355 9.3 9.5
Never a smoker 10296 70.6 70.3
Not reported 3653   
Drinking alcohol More than once a month 4794 26.6 26.2
Less than once a month 1441 8.0 7.9
No 11780 65.4 65.9
Physical exercises Regular exercises 2855 48.0 48.1
Less than regular exercises 2484 41.8 41.8
  No exercise 611 10.3 10.2
  Not reported 12145   
  1. Data source: Authors’ own calculation using CHARLS 2013 national data