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Table 2 Joint predictors of health care utilization among older Chinese, 2013

From: Factors predicting health services use among older people in China: An analysis of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study 2013

Health services utilization Physical examinations Inpatient care Visiting doctors
Coefficient P > z Coefficient P > z Coefficient P > z
Age 45–54       
Age 55–64 0.137 0.023 0.096 0.322 −0.119 0.107
Age 65–74 0.691 0.000 0.199 0.050 0.048 0.570
Age 75+ 0.733 0.000 0.405 0.003 −0.095 0.429
Male       
Female 0.102 0.165 −0.290 0.004 −0.048 0.578
Under primary school       
School without degree 0.142 0.006 −0.032 0.704 0.018 0.780
College and above degrees 0.886 0.000 −0.201 0.388 0.014 0.940
Communist party member 0.355 0.000 0.228 0.022 0.047 0.616
Not communist party member       
Married with spouse presented       
Married with spouse away −0.239 0.108 −0.186 0.289 0.024 0.847
Separated/divorced/widowed 0.152 0.064 0.185 0.059 0.259 0.017
Single 0.460 0.079 −0.331 0.514 0.055 0.848
Han       
Minorities −0.410 0.000 −0.132 0.253 −0.424 0.000
Agricultural household registration       
Non-agricultural household registration 0.220 0.019 0.015 0.923 −0.043 0.700
Other household registration 0.347 0.096 −0.298 0.380 −0.146 0.512
Urban resident 0.227 0.000 0.166 0.082 0.044 0.540
Rural resident       
Better living standard       
About same living standard −0.216 0.083 0.026 0.887 −0.046 0.762
Worse living standard −0.360 0.003 −0.084 0.643 −0.118 0.425
Not reported −0.300 0.027 −0.123 0.538 −0.049 0.763
Average or above household expenditure 0.209 0.000 0.294 0.000 0.139 0.000
Lower than average household expenditure       
Government insurance       
Urban employee insurance 0.275 0.147 −0.077 0.743 −0.011 0.960
Urban resident insurance −0.297 0.172 −0.232 0.414 −0.336 0.171
New rural cooperative insurance −0.244 0.216 −0.097 0.707 −0.299 0.171
Commercial insurance 0.170 0.452 −0.151 0.632 −0.472 0.071
Other types of insurance 0.149 0.523 −0.029 0.920 −0.077 0.785
No medical insurance −0.557 0.029 −0.236 0.588 −0.673 0.008
No chronic disease       
One chronic disease 0.201 0.004 0.267 0.026 0.279 0.001
Two chronic diseases 0.316 0.000 0.367 0.001 0.284 0.001
Three and more chronic diseases 0.568 0.000 0.488 0.000 0.462 0.000
Disease not reported 0.183 0.061 0.124 0.368 0.149 0.141
Any physical disability 0.135 0.269 0.039 0.818 −0.051 0.695
Not physical disability       
Any functional loss 0.166 0.017 0.131 0.142 0.060 0.419
No functional loss       
Good perceived health       
Fair perceived health 0.045 0.453 0.469 0.000 0.593 0.000
Poor perceived health 0.183 0.012 1.262 0.000 1.202 0.000
Very poor perceived health 0.224 0.108 1.435 0.000 1.213 0.000
With ADL 0.043 0.697 0.130 0.291 0.188 0.079
Without ADL       
Not reported 0.077 0.197 −0.176 0.111 −0.312 0.000
No depression       
Moderate/mild depression −0.180 0.018 0.177 0.065 0.137 0.069
Major depression −0.280 0.030 0.241 0.138 0.313 0.014
Not reported −0.089 0.299 0.157 0.190 0.012 0.902
Fair/poor memory 0.091 0.147 0.1262 0.166 −0.1982 0.010
Good memory       
No pain       
A little pain −0.044 0.501 0.033 0.762 0.360 0.000
Some pain −0.008 0.924 0.076 0.486 0.448 0.000
Quite a lot pain −0.099 0.276 −0.051 0.671 0.371 0.000
A lot pain −0.051 0.677 −0.197 0.249 0.444 0.001
Not reported −0.031 0.957 −1.551 0.055 −0.255 0.670
Current a smoker       
Former a smoker 0.484 0.000 0.979 0.000 −0.036 0.797
Never a smoker 0.330 0.000 0.403 0.001 0.171 0.117
Not reported 0.240 0.006 0.455 0.000 0.044 0.683
Drinking alcohol more than once per month      
Drinking alcohol less than once per month 0.023 0.804 0.022 0.870 0.201 0.103
Not drinking alcohol 0.107 0.095 0.513 0.000 0.218 0.004
Regular exercises       
Less than regular exercises −0.071 0.360 −0.149 0.225 −0.061 0.523
No exercise −0.134 0.253 0.301 0.054 −0.542 0.000
Not reported 0.032 0.603 −0.094 0.349 −0.109 0.160
Wald chi2(52) 816.22 669.64 943.31
Prob > chi2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
  1. Data source: Authors’ own calculation using CHARLS 2013 national data
  2. The estimated efficient is significant when its P-value is small than 0.10