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Table 1 Healthcare utilization and perceived good health by predisposing, enabling and need factors among older Chinese, 2013

From: Factors predicting health services use among older people in China: An analysis of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study 2013

Health services utilization and perceived health Physical examinations in the last 18 months Inpatient care in the last year Seeing a doctor in the last month Good perceived health
Total 36.7 11.9 21.5 23.8
Age 45–54 30.9 8.9 19.4 27.9
Age 55–64 33.7 11.0 20.6 22.9
Age 65–74 47.3 14.7 25.0 20.5
Age 75+ 44.8 18.5 24.0 20.3
Male 36.5 12.4 19.0 26.5
Female 37.1 11.7 23.7 21.5
Under primary school 33.2 12.7 23.0 20.7
School without degree 38.4 11.6 20.3 25.9
College and above degrees 73.5 11.2 17.4 44.3
Communist party member 53.2 16.1 21.8 28.9
Not Communist party member 34.7 11.4 21.4 23.2
Married with spouse presented 36.8 11.8 20.7 24.8
Married with spouse away 28.2 9.1 19.5 22.3
Separated/divorced/widowed 40.7 15.0 26.4 20.7
Single 30.7 7.0 23.4 11.7
Han 37.5 12.1 21.7 24.1
Minority 28.7 11.6 17.7 22.2
Agricultural household registration 31.8 11.6 21.3 23.0
Non-agricultural household registration 53.0 13.3 21.5 26.9
Other household registration 50.5 7.9 19.6 32.0
Rural resident 31.1 11.3 21.5 22.0
Urban resident 45.0 13.2 21.2 26.7
Better living standard 51.1 12.1 19.7 42.9
About same living standard 42.3 11.7 20.5 28.6
Worse living standard 34.0 11.6 22.3 19.6
Average or above household expenditure 44.3 14.3 22.7 25.6
Lower than average household expenditure 33.2 11.0 20.8 23.2
Government insurance 63.8 16.2 22.4 31.5
Urban employee insurance 60.7 14.5 24.0 28.0
Urban resident insurance 42.6 12.1 20.6 25.0
New rural cooperative insurance 31.9 11.8 21.4 22.1
Commercial insurance 49.1 9.4 16.0 38.9
Other type of insurance 45.6 12.7 23.2 26.9
No insurance 25.5 9.1 15.8 28.8
No chronic disease 30.6 7.7 14.6 35.2
One chronic disease 35.5 12.0 22.1 21.4
Two chronic diseases 39.2 14.3 24.4 13.8
Three and more chronic diseases 47.5 20.0 32.5 10.0
Diseases not reported 37.3 10.5 19.5 30.0
Any physical disability 38.5 16.9 26.7 10.3
No physical disability 36.8 11.9 21.3 24.8
Any functional loss 41.4 18.0 27.8 12.9
No functional loss 36.2 11.3 20.6 25.3
Good perceived health 36.2 6.2 9.9 100.0
Fair perceived health 36.2 9.6 19.3  
Poor perceived health 38.2 21.2 35.3  
Very poor perceived health 39.2 26.7 38.2  
With any ADL 41.8 25.4 32.5 5.8
Without ADL 36.9 13.3 24.8 16.7
ADL not reported 35.6 6.9 12.5 41.7
No depression 37.9 10.4 19.6 26.9
Moderate/mild depression 32.8 15.9 31.7 7.4
Major depression 30.1 18.7 39.7 3.6
Depression not reported 35.0 16.0 21.6 22.6
Fair/poor memory 36.3 11.8 23.0 18.6
Good memory 41.0 10.8 14.7 48.3
No pain 37.7 10.3 16.9 30.5
A little pain 36.5 13.5 27.8 14.9
Some pain 36.4 14.9 31.6 10.7
Quite a lot pain 34.1 16.1 33.8 5.1
A lot pain 35.0 15.6 36.5 5.5
Current a smoker 30.7 8.8 18.0 26.4
Former a smoker 43.7 21.4 21.3 19.6
Never a smoker 37.7 11.4 22.9 23.2
Drinking alcohol more than once per month 33.7 7.8 16.1 29.8
Drinking alcohol less than once per month 38.2 9.0 21.1 26.4
Not drinking alcohol 37.9 14.1 23.6 21.3
Regular physical exercises 38.2 12.1 23.3 22.3
Less than regular physical exercises 32.4 10.0 21.8 23.2
No physical exercise 33.6 18.9 18.4 19.1
Not reported 37.5 12.1 21.0 24.7
  1. Data source: Authors’ own calculation using CHARLS 2013 national data