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Table 1 Maternal mental health across the PRIME districts

From: Maternal mental health in primary care in five low- and middle-income countries: a situational analysis

  Ethiopia India Nepal South Africa Uganda
Prevalence of antenatal depression 12.0 % [14]a 9.2 % [46]b; 16.2 % [47]b Unknown 49 % [43]b 35.8 % [44]b
Prevalence of postnatal depression 4.6 % [6]a 23 % [48]b; 19.8 % [47]b
24.5–35.5 % [42]b
3.1–4.9 % [38]b
9.8–19.4 % [32, 39, 40]b
35 % [7]b
31.7 % [35]b
6.1 % [37]b
Continuity of antenatal depression onto postnatal depression 21.4 % [6]a 65.5 % [47]b; 42 % [48]b 19 % [50]b 23.2 % [49]b Unknown
Prevalence of puerperal psychosis Unknown Unknown Unknown 0.3 % [67]b Unknown
Prevalence of alcohol consumption during pregnancy 5 % (weekly use) [14]a 5.8 % (among general women population) [65]b 9.4 % [60]b 34 % (urban) and 46–51 % (rural) [62]b; 19.9 % [63] b 25 % [64]b
15 % [61]b
Evidence of impact of perinatal depression on mother Disability [55]a, prolonged labour [14]a Disability and increased health service use [48]b Unknown Unknown Unknown
Evidence of impact of perinatal depression on child Increased diarrhoeal episodes [56]a and mortality [51] a; impaired development [52]b; no association with malnutrition [58]c [57]a Malnutrition [20, 53]b; impaired cognitive development [20]b Unknown Poor attachment [54]b and mother-child relationship [7]b; no association with malnutrition [59]b Unknown
Prevalence of foetal alcohol spectrum disorders Unknown Unknown Unknown 59.3–91.0 per 1000 births [66]b 61 per 1000 birth defects [127]c
Evidence of impact of puerperal psychosis on the mother and child No studies Suicidal ideation (38 %) and attempted 0suicide (15 %); ideas of harm to infant [68]b Unknown Unknown Unknown
  1. aData from a different district, but same region as PRIME district; bData from a different region in the PRIME country; cNational data