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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants by PNPLA3 rs738409 and TM6SF2 rs58542926

From: Association of PNPLA3 rs738409 and TM6SF2 rs58542926 with health services utilization in a population-based study

  PNPLA3 rs738409 TM6SF2 rs58542926
  CC CG GG CC CT TT
N (%) 2238 (59.6 %) 1347 (35.8 %) 173 (4.6 %) 3471 (80.6 %) 580 (13.5 %) 28 (0.7 %)
Annual number of outpatient visitsa 7.5 (2.5) 7.5 (3.5) 7.5 (2.6) 4.9 (2.2) 7.3 (2.6) 7.9 (2.5)*
Hospitalization during the last year, % 14.1 14.2 19.7* 7.4 13.7 14.6
Annual number of inpatient days among subjects with hospitalization during the last year, daysa 9.7 (2.6) 9.7 (2.3) 10.6 (2.5)* 6.9 (1.2) 9.6 (2.5) 11.1 (2.5)**
Age, years 49.91 (16.28) 49.40 (16.58) 50.00 (15.83) 49.3 (16.2) 48.7 (16.5) 47.4 (16.1)
Female, % 50.7 50.6 56.7* 50.1 54.7 74.1
School education (<10 years), % 39.1 37.7 39.1 38.4 40.3 33.3*
Equivalent household income, €a 852 (1.7) 833 (1.8) 879 (1.7) 852 (1.7) 807 (1.8) 929 (1.6)
Alcohol intake, g/da 7.3 (3.5) 7.5 (3.4) 5.9 (2.5)** 7.5 (3.5) 6.9 (3.5) 5.1 (3.9)
Regular smoking, % 29.7 32.3 28.3 30.4 31.3 25.9
Body mass index, kg/m2 27.3 (4.8) 27.1 (4.8) 26.9 (4.8) 27.3 (4.5) 27.3 (4.8) 26.2 (4.3)
Obesity, % 26.8 24.1 22.0 25.3 28.1 14.8
Waist circumference, cm 90.0 (14.0) 88.4 (13.8)** 87.3 (13.3)** 89.2 (13.9) 89.2 (14.2) 84.4 (13.1)
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 135.6 (20.7) 135.6 (20.7) 136.2 (20.8) 132.4 (18.5) 136.0 (21.2) 134.6 (20.8)
Hypertension, % 51.9 52.8 52.6 37.0 52.9 49.1
Ferritin, μg/la 68.4 (2.7) 68.6 (2.6) 61.56 (2.58) 68.2 (2.6) 68.5 (2.7) 66.6 (3.0)
Hepatic steatosis, % 27.4 31.9** 39.9** 28.4 36.3** 44.4*
Increased ALT (>75th percentile), % 17.9 22.7** 28.3** 19.4 24.2* 29.6
GFR, ml.min.1.73 m2 79.5 (15.1) 80.0 (15.1) 79.8 (15.1) 79.5 (15.1) 80.9 (14.8) 78.8 (11.1)
High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 1.45 (0.45) 1.46 (0.43) 1.49 (0.43) 1.45 (0.44) 1.48 (0.43) 1.50 (0.39)
Low-density cholesterol, mmol/l 3.59 (1.18) 3.54 (1.13) 3.54 (1.25) 3.59 (1.25) 3.50 (1.10)* 2.75 (1.27)**
Total cholesterol, 5.80 (1.28) 5.72 (1.19) 5.76 (1.32) 5.79 (1.25) 5.69 (1.22)** 4.82 (1.43)**
Dyslipidemia (TC/HDL-C ratio ≥ 5), % 27.8 25.8 24.3 27.6 24.0 14.8
triglycerides 1.91 (1.57) 1.80 (1.36) 1.78 (1.31) 1.89 (1.46) 1.74 (1.62)** 1.34 (1.53)**
Serum glucose 5.70 (1.87) 5.62 (1.67) 5.53 (1.76) 5.66 (1.81) 5.70 (1.81) 5.45 (1.00)
HbA1c, % 5.45 (0.97) 5.42 (0.88) 5.34 (0.84) 5.44 (0.92) 5.42 (0.99) 5.38 (0.49)
Diabetes, % 8.0 7.6 6.9 7.7 8.6 7.4
Upper gastrointestinal disease (ulcer, hernia, reflux), % 1.6 2.1 1.7 1.7 2.1 3.7
Myocardial infarction, % 3.4 3.3 3.5 3.3 3.4 3.9
Angina pectoris, % 5.0 3.4* 1.7* 3.9 5.8* 7.4
Congestive heart failure, % 12.51 10.62 14.45 22.2 12.0 11.1
Arthritis 7.2 7.3 11.6* 7.4 7.7 11.1
Osteoporosis 4.7 4.3 4.1 4.5 4.9 0
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, % 6.1 5.0 4.6 5.6 5.4 14.8
Multiple sclerosis or Parkinson’s disease, % 0.5 0.2 0 0.4 0.2 0
Stroke or TIA, % 2.3 1.6 1.7 2.1 1.7 0
Peripheral vascular disease, % 1.4 1.0 0.6 1.4 0 0
Degenerative disc disease, % 37.2 35.0 38.2 36.6 35.4 40.7
Anxiety, % 23.5 22.9 22.0 23.2 23.0 33.3
Depression, % 12.4 12.8 17.9* 12.6 13.9 14.8
Functional Comorbidity Indexa 1.6 (1.7) 1.6 (1.6) 1.7 (1.7) 1.6 (1.6) 1.6 (1.6) 1.7 (1.6)
  1. Entries are mean (SD) or % unless indicated differently
  2. GFR glomerular filtration rate, TC total cholesterol; HDL High-density lipoprotein cholesterol
  3. aGeometric mean (geometric SD)
  4. *p < .05
  5. **p < .01 for comparisons with CC-allele from t-test (continuous variables) or Fisher’s exact test (categorical variables)