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Table 2 Comparison of three outcome measures between the intervention (RBWH) and control group (LH) and between the pre- and post-test period

From: Hospital in the Nursing Home program reduces emergency department presentations and hospital admissions from residential aged care facilities in Queensland, Australia: a quasi-experimental study

ED presentation rate (Number of ED presentations per 1000 RACF beds):
  3-month pre-test (Mean ± SD) 3-month post-test (Mean ± SD) 1-year post-test (Mean ± SD) Rate Ratio (95 % CI) p-value
06/2005–08/2005 06/2011–08/2011 03/2011–02/2012 3-month post-test vs. 3-month pre-test
Intervention group 70.37 ± 6.59 52.72 ± 1.45 45.07 ± 5.84 0.75 (0.65, 0.86) <0.0001**
Control group 74.92 ± 12.52 67.28 ± 3.83 69.69 ± 7.92 0.90 (0.75, 1.08) 0.246
Rate Ratio (95 % CI) Intervention vs. Control 0.94 (0.80, 1.11) 0.78 (0.67, 0.92) 0.65 (0.60, 0.70)   
p-value 0.455 0.002** <0.0001**   
Hospital admission rate per RACF bed (Number of hospital admissions per 1000 RACF beds):
  3-month pre-test (Mean ± SD) 3-month post-test (Mean ± SD) 1-year post-test (Mean ± SD) Rate Ratio (95 % CI) p-value
06/2005–08/2005 06/2011–08/2011 03/2011–02/2012 3-month post-test vs. 3-month pre-test
Intervention group 40.12 ± 8.74 26.29 ± 0.84 23.98 ± 3.37 0.66 (0.54, 0.79) <0.0001**
Control group 34.38 ± 5.13 42.65 ± 6.23 46.33 ± 6.20 1.24 (0.96, 1.60) 0.093
Rate Ratio (95 % CI) Intervention vs. Control 1.17 (0.92, 1.48) 0.62 (0.50, 0.76) 0.52 (0.47, 0.57)   
p-value 0.199 <0.0001** <0.0001**   
Hospital admission rate per ED presentation (Number of hospital admissions per 100 ED presentations):
  3-month pre-test (Mean ± SD) 3-month post-test (Mean ± SD) 1-year post-test (Mean ± SD) Odds Ratioa (95 % CI) p-value
06/2005–08/2005 06/2011–08/2011 03/2011–02/2012 3-month post-test vs. 3-month pre-test
Intervention group 56.63 ± 8.46 49.91 ± 2.58 53.34 ± 5.16 0.82 (0.61, 1.11) 0.196
Control group 46.18 ± 4.58 63.20 ± 5.85 66.60 ± 6.34 2.10 (1.36, 3.26) 0.001**
Odds Ratioa (95 % CI) Intervention vs. Control 1.29 (0.87, 1.93) 0.61 (0.43, 0.85) 0.59 (0.49, 0.70)   
p-value 0.209 0.004** <0.0001**   
  1. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01; SD standard deviation, CI confidence interval
  2. a Odds ratio was obtained using binary logistic regression that modelled impact of the HiNH intervention and impact of the test period, respectively, on the outcome, after controlling for patients’ age, gender, Australasian Triage Scale (ATS), primary clinical diagnosis, season, day (weekday/weekend) and time (working hours/after hours) of patients’ ED departure