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Table 4 Factors associated with costs incurred by patients during the last two months of treatment in Rio de Janeiro, using income per activity reported by participant to value a productive hour (USD 2013)

From: Shortened first-line TB treatment in Brazil: potential cost savings for patients and health services

Variables Number in each category with direct costs Direct costs, mean (SD) N = 85b P valuea Indirect costs, mean (SD) N = 126 P valuea Total costs, mean (SD) N = 126 P-valuea
Sexb        
 Female 32 79 (126) 0.313 355 (1,981) 0.892 127 (145) 0.263
 Male 53 107 (161)   318 (1,040)   169 (236)  
Age        
  < 43 years 41 105 (165) 0.527 289 (998) 0.743 167 (251) 0.451
  > = 43 years 44 88 (131)   375 (1834)   139 (139)  
Treatment history        
 New case 71 101 (155) 0.544 373 (1,628) 0.524 153 (217) 0.952
 Retreatment 14 80 (116)   159 (299)   150 (157)  
Residence        
 Urban 56 88 (152) 0.351 258 (978) 0.386 135 (213) 0.166
 Peri-urban 29 114 (140)   500 (2,193)   190 (187)  
Treatment type        
 SAT 52 110 (165) 0.379 560 (49) 0.216 170 (256) 0.333
 Facility-DOT 29 93 (137)   126 (185)   154 (142)  
 Community-DOT 4 52 (104)   39 (49)   81 (122)  
Socioeconomic statusc        
 A/B (median family income USD 4288.4-USD 1228.7) 18 60 (108) 0.128 68 (137) 0.042 98 (121) 0.099
 C/D/E (median family income USD 780.1-USD 359.2) 64 111 (160)   428 (1,703)   175 (227)  
  1. Abbreviations: SAT self-administered therapy; DOT directly observed therapy; SD standard deviation
  2. *from independent t-test
  3. bAmong 126 patients, 85 patients or accompanying persons declared direct costs
  4. cmissing information for 3 participants
  5. Bold numbers highlight significant p-values.