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Table 3 Total, direct and indirect costs incurred by patients during the last two months of treatment in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (using four methods for productivity loss valuationa), USD 2013

From: Shortened first-line TB treatment in Brazil: potential cost savings for patients and health services

Costs Minimum wage, mean (SD) N = 126 SES income per capita, mean (SD) N = 126 Income per activity, mean (SD) N = 126 Reported income, mean (SD) N = 49
Total direct costs (all)b 96 (148) 114 (162)
 Transport 8 (19) 5 (11)
 Food 2 (5) 2 (5)
 Other non-transport/food 3 (21) 0.5 (3)
 Nutritional supplements 82 (143) 105 (158)
Total indirect costs (all)b 316 (1,466) 316 (1,469) 332 (1,472) 357 (1,985)
 Coping costsd 275 (1,458) 327 (1,982)
 Productivity loss 21 (24) 18 (26) 30 (32) 25 (39)
 Caregiver/guardian costs 20 (67) 22 (78) 27 (94) 5 (23)
Total costs (all)b 413 (1,503) 413 (1,507) 153 (206) 144 (163)
Total costs (patients only)c 361 (1,481) 364 (1,484) 374 (1,486) 411 (1,991)
 Total direct costs 51 (74) 57 (77)
 Total indirect costs 310 (1,466) 313 (1,469) 323 (1,471) 354 (1,981)
  1. aMinimum wage refers to the valuation of an productive hour lost based on the minimum wage in Brazil and a 44 weekly hour contract; SES income per capita refers to the valuation of a productive hour based on the average income for a reported socio-economic status; Income activity refers to the valuation of a productive hour based on the average income for the patient’s profession, based on union’s information; Reported income refers to the valuation of a productive hour based on the income reported by the participant. bThese costs are presented for both patients and any person accompanying the patient during their visits. cThese costs refer to costs incurred by patients only, not including costs incurred by any accompanying person. dCoping costs include borrowed money and selling of assets