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Table 1 Patient characteristics overall and by PCPs with high or low PSA ordering rates

From: Downstream tests, treatments, and annual direct payments in older men cared for by primary care providers with high or low prostate-specific antigen screening rates using 100 percent Texas U.S. Medicare public insurance claims data: a retrospective cohort study

   N (%)   
Characteristics Overall High rank PCP Low rank PCP p-value
Overall 46782 (100) 22853 (100) 23929 (100)  
Any PSA testing 32697 (69.9) 18889 (82.7) 13808 (57.7) <0.001
Any PSA testing ordered by patient’s PCP 24378 (52.1) 16403 (71.8) 7975 (33.3) <0.001
Any PSA testing ordered by provider other than patient’s PCP 13649 (29.2) 5810 (25.4) 7839 (32.8) <0.001
Age Years)
 75–79 22024 (47.1) 10900 (47.7) 11124 (46.5) 0.008
 80–84 14958 (32.0) 7287 (31.9) 7671 (32.1)  
  ≥ 85 9800 (20.9) 4666 (20.4) 5134 (21.5)  
Ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic White 38169 (81.6) 18673 (81.7) 19496 (81.5) <0.001
 Black 1346 (2.9) 586 (2.6) 760 (3.2)  
 Hispanic 6614 (14.1) 3209 (14.0) 3405 (14.2)  
 Others 653 (1.4) 385 (1.7) 268 (1.1)  
Elixhauser Comorbidity
 0 6110 (13.1) 2896 (12.7) 3214 (13.4) 0.027
 1 12846 (27.5) 6230 (27.3) 6616 (27.6)  
 2 11988 (25.6) 5889 (25.8) 6099 (25.5)  
 3 7098 (15.2) 3559 (15.6) 3539 (14.8)  
  ≥ 4 8740 (18.7) 4279 (18.7) 4461 (18.6)  
Medicaid Eligible
 Yes 4813 (10.3) 2328 (10.2) 2485 (10.4) 0.481
 No 41969 (89.7) 20525 (89.8) 21444 (89.6)  
Urban/Rural
 Metro 34536 (73.8) 17847 (78.1) 16689 (69.7) <0.001*
 Non-Metro 11279 (24.1) 4730 (20.7) 6549 (27.4)  
 Rural 960 (2.1) 272 (1.2) 688 (2.9)  
 Unknown 7 (0.0) 4 (0.0) 3 (0.0)  
Percent of persons in zip code 25 or older with high school education or higher
 Q1: ≤ 74 % 11859 (25.3) 5514 (24.1) 6345 (26.5) <0.001*
 Q2: 74–83 % 11503 (24.6) 5009 (21.9) 6494 (27.1)  
 Q3: 83–90 % 11815 (25.3) 5829 (25.5) 5986 (25.0)  
 Q4: 90–100 % 11529 (24.6) 6485 (28.4) 5044 (21.1)  
 Unknown 76 (0.2) 16 (0.1) 60 (0.3)  
  1. PCP primary care provider, PSA prostate specific antigen
  2. Q1 quartile 1, Q2 quartile 2, Q3 quartile 3, Q4 quartile 4
  3. p-value was calculated using chi-square test between high- and low-PSA-rate PCP groups
  4. *The unknown was excluded for chi-square test