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Table 6 Perceived self-efficacy and changes in self-management of chronic condition

From: Introducing the chronic disease self-management program in Switzerland and other German-speaking countries: findings of a cross-border adaptation using a multiple-methods approach

  (1) Start of workshop (2) End of workshop (3) Four to six months afterwards Difference (1) and (2)
M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) (1) and (3)
Perceived self-efficacy (measured with SES6G [51]; original English text used for publication)     
How confident are you that you can… (n = 228–230) (n = 208–211) (n = 117)  
… keep the fatigue caused by your disease from interfering with the things you want to do? 5.85 6.62 6.47 0.77
(2.63) (2.41) (2.64) 0.62
… keep the physical discomfort or pain of your disease from interfering with the things you want to do? 5.64 6.38 6.15 0.74
(2.66) (2.38) (2.73) 0.51
… keep the emotional distress caused by your disease from interfering with the things you want to do? 6.03 6.48 6.63 0.45
  (2.68) (2.56) (2.64) 0.60
… keep any other symptoms or health problems you have from interfering with the things you want to do? 5.93 6.64 6.26 0.71
(2.50) (2.43) (2.64) 0.33
… do the different tasks and activities needed to manage your health condition so as to reduce your need to see a doctor? 6.73 7.24 7.01 0.51
(2.63) (2.36) (2.76) 0.28
… do things other than just taking medication to reduce how much your illness affects your everyday life? 6.86 7.31 7.29 0.45
(2.65) (2.34) (2.59) 0.43
Arithmetic mean and mean difference of all six scales 6.18 6.77 6.64 0.59
(2.28) (2.06) (2.39) 0.46
Self-rated changes in self-management of chronic condition and life     
(rated on 7-point level of agreement scale, from −3 to +3) (n = 228–235) (n = 205–207) (n = 114–117)  
Coping well with given situation in everyday life 1.62 1.86 1.99 0.24
(1.80) (1.66) (1.60) 0.37
Handling problems related to chronic condition by oneself 1.16 1.50 1.46 0.34
(1.94) (1.57) (1.41) 0.30
Coping with feeling down or sad at times 0.93 1.05 1.34 0.12
(2.15) (2.19) (1.98) 0.41
Not becoming overwhelmed because of health-related difficult emotions 0.98 1.33 1.71 0.35
(2.14) (1.83) (2.32) 0.73
Being excluded from activities in daily living because of paina −0.01 0.08 −0.08 0.09
(2.84) (2.89) (2.67) 0.07
Being confident to still achieve something in life 1.52 1.88 1.66 0.36
(1.79) (1.62) (1.70) 0.14
Being positive about life despite chronic condition 1.42 1.65 1.75 0.23
(1.72) (1.72) (1.65) 0.33
Caring about oneself 1.35 1.48 1.57 0.13
(2.10) (1.71) (1.72) 0.22
Succeeding in setting goals and achieving them 1.26 1.62 1.63 0.36
(1.81) (1.45) (1.77) 0.37
Paying attention about daily exercise 1.37 1.70 1.75 0.33
(1.86) (1.38) (1.87) 0.38
Easy to relax in everyday life 0.52 0.84 0.91 0.32
(2.45) (2.08) (1.90) 0.39
Mean difference     0.21
    0.36
Self-rated health and quality of life     
rated on 10-point scales between 0 (not occurred) and 10 (extremely severe) (n = 197–229) (n = 205–211) (n = 111–116)  
Fatigue, exhaustion 5.70 5.06 5.04 0.64
(2.81) (3.03) (2.74) −0.66
Pain 5.48 5.10 4.91 0.38
(3.02) (3.04) (2.76) −0.57
Limited mobility 4.93 4.26 4.64 0.67
(3.32) (3.31) (3.22) −0.29
Drowsiness, feeling down 4.78 3.09 4.36 0.69
(3.01) (2.96) (2.93) −0.42
Poor concentration 4.38 3.57 3.84 0.81
(2.92) (2.80) (2.84) −0.54
Insomnia 3.78 3.30 3.13 0.48
(3.42) 3.24) (3.02) −0.65
Discomfort 3.05 2.70 2.86 0.35
(3.19) (3.01) (3.11) −0.19
Anxiety states 2.68 2.11 2.20 0.57
(3.14) (2.83) (2.65) −0.48
Shortness of breath 2.29 1.19 2.15 0.38
(2.92) (2.63) (2.99) −0.14
Dizziness 2.02 1.80 1.74 0.22
(2.86) (2.84) (2.67) 0.28
Constipation 1.90 1.76 1.70 0.14
(2.86) (2.79) (2.87) −0.20
Nausea 1.69 1.49 1.37 0.20
(2.53) (3.31) (2.24) −0.32
Bad taste in mouth 1.70 2.00 1.32 +0.30
(2.71) (2.84) (2.53) −0.38
Loss of appetite 1.18 1.27 1.42 +0.09
(2.23) (2.25) (2.29) −0.02
Mean difference    0.40
    −0.37
Self-rated changes in interaction with physician and adherence     
(rated on 7-point level of agreement scale, from −3 to +3) (n = 228–235) (n = 206–211) (n = 114–118)  
Consider topics to be discussed with physician before consultation 2.34 2.43 2.56 0.00
(1.54) (1.28) (0.81) 0.13
Being certain about decisions when to take medication 2.35 2.48 2.26 0.13
(1.86) (2.00) (1.39) −0.09
Adhering to medication regimen as prescribed 1.94 2.22 2.08 0.28
(1.67) (1.38) (1.42) 0.14
Uncertainty and confusion after reading about new treatment opportunitiesa −0.80 −1.21 −0.98 0.41 a
(2.82) (2.82) (2.94) 0.18a
Mean difference     0.06
    −0.03
Self-rated changes in dietary behaviour     
(rated on 7-point level of agreement scale, from −3 to +3) (n = 265–272) (n = 241–245) (n = 136–138)  
Having breakfast everyday 1.80 1.99 2.13 0.19
(2.01) (1.86) (1.68) 0.33
Moderate use of oil and fat 1.87 2.00 1.95 0.13
(1.36) (1.15) (1.22) 0.08
Eating a variety of foods 1.90 2.08 2.08 0.18
(1.35) (1.08) (1.01) 0.18
Restricting use of salt 1.13 1.42 1.30 0.29
(1.66) (1.56) (1.71) 0.05
Adequate fluid intake 1.69 1.95 1.92 0.36
(1.57) (1.40) (1.39) 0.33
Corn or potatoes with every main meal 1.13 1.67 1.62 0.54
(1.80) (1.46) (1.48) 0.49
Eating about the same serving with each meal 0.94 1.21 1.43 0.27
(1.68) (1.60) (1.54) 0.49
Use of whole-grain products 0.97 1.10 1.22 0.13
(1.76) (1.69) (1.70) 0.25
Similar meal times each day 0.87 1.22 1.21 0.35
(1.72) (1.62) (1.48) 0.34
Sweets and snacks only occasionally 0.33 0.44 0.49 0.11
(1.84) (1.84) (1.81) 0.16
Eating about five servings of fruit and vegetables per day 0.19 0.73 0.94 0.54
(1.95) (1.83) (1.74) 0.75
Mean difference     0.28
    0.31
  1. a = negative phrased item; positive mean value indicate negative condition, difference values have inversed sign: positive difference values indicate a positive trend