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Table 4 Facilitators of the integrated care interventions by Implementation Model levels

From: Context, mechanisms and outcomes of integrated care for diabetes mellitus type 2: a systematic review

Ref. Innovation Individual Professional Patient Social Context Organisational Context Economic & Political Context
[39]a + Simple visual IT layout    + Staff involvement/ cooperation   
+ Resource-sharing
+ Change agent
[40]a +  Systematic identification and assignment of patients + Provider education   + Leadership support + Multidisciplinary team  
+ Dedicated staff time
[44] + Bilinguals    + Local champions   
+ Translations
[32]   + Encouragement   + Shared leadership   
+ Provider education + Shared goals
[41]a + Registry      
+ Outcome data
[45]    + Home tutorial    
+ Social networking
[42] + Time-efficient intervention    + Culture of change   + Low-cost intervention
[54]       
[37]       
[26]       
[33] + Multifaceted intervention     + Nurse case manager  
[50] + Multimedia audiovisual prompting   + Patient instruction    
+ Bilinguals
[55] + Electronic messaging      
[25] + Outcome data    + Adapting to change   
+ Registry + Competition
[48] + Drop-ins + Participatory, informal provider education    + Job conditions  
+ Case conferences
+ Shared caseload
+ Safety protocols
[27] + Automated data extraction      
[34] + Registry + Provider education (on guidelines)   + Changing practice culture + Changes to organisation’s policies and procedures  
+ Outcome data
+ Multilinguals
+ Translations + Persistence + Staff buy-in
+ Pictorial focus
[28] + Drop-ins + Ability to establish personal relationships with patients + Linkages between home situations and clinical care   + Changing workflow  
+ Varied activities
+ Peer support
[47]   + Provider reminders    + Use of flow sheets  
[30] + Registry + Provider education    + Changing practice workflow  
+ Access to process outcomes
[51]       
[43] + Electronic registry      + Low-cost intervention
[35] + Minimal bureaucracy + Provider education    + Cooperation & communication  
+ Timely referral
+ Case conferences
[38] + Electronic medical record   + Patient-to-patient feedback + Staff buy-in   
[31]       
[52]       
[56]   + Ability to broach delicate topics   + Openness to innovation   
[53]   + Provider involvement   + Regional embeddedness   + Availability of legal national task profiles
+ Leadership commitment
[46]   + Provider education   + Regional embeddedness + Guideline dissemination  
+ Specialist support
[49]     + Resource-sharing   
+ Working environment
[36]     + Leadership commitment   
+ Staff involvement
+ Change agents
[47]   + Provider reminders     
  1. aindicates articles with lower methodological quality. Empty cells indicate that no facilitators were mentioned in the category