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Table 3 Mean (SD) resource utilization per patient by treatment group

From: Is exposure in vivo cost-effective for chronic low back pain? A trial-based economic evaluation

Type of utilization Mean (SD) Mean (SD)  
  GA (N = 31) EXP (N = 31) Mean difference (95 % CI)b
Number of contacts:    
 General practitioner 2.74 (4.67) 2.13 (3.49) −0.65 (-2.82 to 1.34)
 Medical specialist 2.02 (3.25) 1.98 (2.84) −0.02 (-1.50 to 1.50)
 Other health care providersa 29.44 (51.01) 17.39 (27.10) −12.44 (-32.53 to 5.87)
 Alternative health care 2.58 (5.53) 1.94 (9.44) −0.63 (-3.71 to 3.63)
Prescriptions for medication:    
 Anxiolytics 0.24 (0.99) 0.69 (2.66) 0.46 (-0.40 to 1.53)
 Antidepressants 0.16 (0.90) 0.32 (1.41) 0.13 (-0.40 to 0.73)
 Opioids 1.29 (3.59) 0.65 (1.93) −0.70 (-2.26 to 0.57)
 Other medication 0.81(3.38) 1.17 (4.99) 0.38 (-1.61 to 2.58)
Over-the-counter medication 0.23 (0.50) 0.29 (0.53) 0.06 (-1.96 to 3.25)
Hospitalization (in days) 0.48 (2.69) 0  
Hours of help:    
 Home care 45.24 (176.96) 10.32 (40.00) −35.16 (-112.26 to 12.02)
 Paid domestic work 5.16 (18.28) 10.32 (31.08) 3.43 (-7.26 to 17.07)
 Unpaid help 168.23(348.08) 179.26 (321.13) 19.26 (-140.76 to 182.94)
Hours absent from:    
 Unpaid work 308.99 (416.81) 332.92 (442.99) 14.44 (-188.02 to 228.64)
 Usual activity 49.72 (100.98) 37.89 (76.05) −12.08 (-58.31 to 31.26)
 Paid work 291.69 (501.99) 191.39 (362.60) −104.81 (-324.84 to 103.69)
  1. GA Graded activity, EXP Exposure in vivo
  2. aPhysiotherapist, occupational therapist, manual therapist, Mensendieck therapist, Cesar therapist, psychologist, dietician, pedicurist, masseur, orthopedist, and social worker
  3. b95 % confidence intervals derived with independent samples T-test