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Table 1 Mean (SD) and differences in demographic characteristics, pain-related fear, outcome variables, and cost components at an eight-week baseline period per treatment group

From: Is exposure in vivo cost-effective for chronic low back pain? A trial-based economic evaluation

  Mean (SD) Mean difference (95 % CI)
Variables GA (n = 31) EXP (n = 31) EXP versus GA
Age (years) 45.45 (8.42) 47.13 (9.58) −1.67 (-2.90 to 6.26)
Gender (% female) 50 % 50 %   
Education (%)     (-0.51 to 0.13)
 Low 41.9 % 45.2 %   
 Intermediate 41.9 % 54.8 %
 High 16.1 % 0 %
QBPDS (0-100)b 53.53 (12.79) 55.02 (11.41) 1.48 (-4.67 to 7.64)
Utility (0-1)b 0.60 (0.07) 0.58 (0.05) −0.02 (-0.06 to 0.01)
Health care costsa 68.56 (30.27) 65.78 (38.68) −3.00 (-94.00 to 99.00)
Patient and family costsa 332.44 (94.59) 367.74 (84.98) 35 (-224.00 to 268.00)
Productivity lossa 1,126.98 (355.07) 754.83 (255.86) −372 (-1,205.00 to 456.00)
Total costs a 1,529.32 (371.80) 1,204.73 (282.12) −325 (-1,301 to 586)
  1. GA graded activity, EXP gradual exposure, QBPDS Quebec Back Pain Disability Score, QALYs quality-adjusted life years. Costs are in euros and per patient
  2. aDifference in mean (95 % confidence interval) derived using bootstrapping (1,000 replications)
  3. bDifference in mean (95 % confidence interval) derived using independent t-tests or chi-square tests