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Table 2 Patient characteristics related to >3 hospital episodes, length of stay >42 days and time in ICU in the last year of life for people aged 18 years or more in NSW in 2007 (n = 45,749)a

From: Acute hospital-based services used by adults during the last year of life in New South Wales, Australia: a population-based retrospective cohort study

   >3 hospital episodes (24 %) >42 days in hospital (25 %) Spent time in ICU (12 %)
  No. of deaths n (% within category) Adjusted OR (95 % CI) n (% within category) Adjusted OR (95 % CI) n (% within category) Adjusted OR (95 % CI)
Age at death    p < 0.0001   p < 0.0001   p < 0.0001
 18–59 5722 1660 (29) 0.92 (0.86–0.99) 1344 (23) 0.76 (0.71–0.82) 1018 (18) 1.06 (0.97–1.15)
 60–79 15,723 4979 (32) 1.00 (reference) 4580 (29) 1.00 (reference) 2608 (17) 1.00 (reference)
 80–89 16,354 3350 (20) 0.69 (0.65–0.72) 4051 (25) 0.92 (0.88–0.97) 1413 (9) 0.46 (0.42–0.49)
 90+ 7950 878 (11) 0.39 (0.36–0.42) 1389 (17) 0.65 (0.61–0.70) 235 (3) 0.14 (0.12–0.17)
Sex    p < 0.0001   p = 0.02   p < 0.0001
 Female 22,422 4645 (21) 1.00 (reference) 5313 (24) 1.00 (reference) 2189 (10) 1.00 (reference)
 Male 23,117 6222 (27) 1.19 (1.14–1.25) 6051 (26) 1.05 (1.01–1.10) 3085 (13) 1.14 (1.07–1.21)
 Unknown 210 0 (0) Not included 0 (0) Not included 0 (0) Not included
Country of birth    p = 0.01   p < 0.0001   p = 0.58
 Australia 33,862 8084 (24) 1.00 (reference) 8566 (25) 1.00 (reference) 3840 (11) 1.00 (reference)
 Other 11,536 2783 (24) 0.93 (0.89–0.99) 2798 (24) 0.89 (0.85–0.94) 1432 (12) 0.98 (0.91–1.05)
 Unknown 351 0 (0) Not included 0 (0) Not included 2 (1) Not included
Place of residenceb    p = 0.04   p < 0.0001   p < 0.0001
 Major cities 30,907 7527 (24) 1.00 (reference) 7843 (25) 1.00 (reference) 3797 (12) 1.00 (reference)
 Inner regional 10,990 2492 (23) 0.92 (0.87–0.98) 2571 (23) 0.89 (0.84–0.94) 1090 (10) 0.75 (0.69–0.82)
 Outer regional/Remote/Very remote 3396 830 (24) 0.97 (0.89–1.07) 921 (27) 1.06 (0.97–1.16) 373 (11) 0.69 (0.61–0.79)
 Unknown 462 18 (4) Not included 29 (6) Not included 14 (3) Not included
Socioeconomic statusc    p < 0.0001   p = 0.01   p < 0.0001
 Most disadvantaged quintile 9045 2234 (25) 0.90 (0.83–0.97) 2309 (26) 0.97 (0.89–1.04) 1338 (15) 1.23 (1.11–1.36)
 Quintile 2 10,207 2439 (24) 0.83 (0.77–0.89) 2485 (24) 0.89 (0.83–0.96) 1091 (11) 0.86 (0.78–0.95)
 Quintile 3 10,169 2251 (22) 0.78 (0.72–0.84) 2503 (25) 0.92 (0.86–0.99) 1065 (10) 0.82 (0.74–0.90)
 Quintile 4 7878 1874 (24) 0.85 (0.79–0.92) 1938 (25) 0.91 (0.85–0.98) 802 (10) 0.75 (0.68–0.83)
 Least disadvantaged quintile 7943 2043 (26) 1.00 (reference) 2088 (26) 1.00 (reference) 958 (12) 1.00 (reference)
 Unknown 507 26 (5) Not included 41 (8) Not included 20 (4) Not included
Cause of death    p < 0.0001   p < 0.0001   p < 0.0001
 Circulatory system 15,500 2341 (15) 1.00 (reference) 2922 (19) 1.00 (reference) 1540 (10) 1.00 (reference)
 Cancer 13,441 5465 (41) 3.18 (3.00–3.37) 4685 (35) 2.17 (2.06–2.30) 1514 (11) 0.79 (0.73–0.85)
 Other known cause 15,226 2797 (18) 1.19 (1.12–1.26) 3447 (23) 1.26 (1.19–1.33) 2032 (13) 1.21 (1.12–1.30)
 Cause not known 1582 264 (17) Not included 310 (20) Not included 188 (12) Not included
  1. OR odds ratio adjusted for all other factors in table, CI confidence interval
  2. aThese groups represent the top quartiles of the distributions for hospital episodes (>3) and length of stay in hospital (>42 days) during the last year of life
  3. bBased on Australian Bureau of Statistics’ Accessibility Remoteness Index for Australia
  4. cUsing population-based quintiles of the Australian Bureau of Statistics’ index of relative disadvantage