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Table 2 Type of advance care directive by participant characteristics

From: Costs and advance directives at the end of life: a case of the ‘Coaching Older Adults and Carers to have their preferences Heard (COACH)’ trial

Variable GPCPa EPGb MDc
n = 35 n = 21 n = 20
  Median; mean (SD) Median; mean (SD) Median; mean (SD))
Age in years 86.0; 85.0 (7.5) 87.0; 84.8 (7.2) 87.5; 88.0 (5.6)
Baseline QoLd (EQ-5D score) 0.33; 0.38 (0.33) 0.45; 0.46 (0.26) 0.38; 0.41 (0.33)
Baseline functional status (Barthel Index) 57.0; 55.5 (23.3) 61.0; 59.8 (19.2) 60.5; 58.4 (20.9)
Baseline cognitive function (SMMSEe score)* 25.0; 23.3 (5.7) 19.5; 19.2 (5.8) 23.5; 23.4 (4.3)
Baseline depressive symptoms (GDS-15f score) 6.0; 5.8 (2.7) 5.0; 5.6 (2.9) 4.5; 6.0 (3.6)
Body mass index (BMI)g 22.2; 23.6 (6.5) 24.0; 24.9 (5.3) 22.9; 23.9 (5.0)
Gender [n,(%) male] 15 (43) 12 (57) 5 (25)
n (%) who had a QoLh gain over 12 months 13 (41) 7 (41) 8 (44)
n (%) who had died at the end of 12 months 10 (29) 6 (29) 2 (10)
Place of death [n (%) in each column]    
 Hospital 6 (60) 3 (50) 1 (50)
 Residential Care/Respite 4 (40) 3 (50) 1 (50)
 Home/Independent living unit 0 0 0
When AD was completedi    
 Before admission to TCj 0 17 (81) 5 (25)
 During admission to TCj 35 (100) 2 (10) 15 (70)
Trial Arm    
 Intervention* 30 (86) 14 (67) 9 (45)
 Usual care* 5 (14) 7 (33) 11 (55)
  1. aGPCP = Good palliative care plan
  2. bEPG = Enduring power of guardianship
  3. cMD = Medical documentation
  4. dQoL = Quality of life
  5. eSMMSE = Standardised Mini Mental State Examination
  6. fGDS-15 = Geriatric Depression Scale. Due to missing data, n = 34 for GPCP, 20 for EPG and 18 for MD
  7. gThere was some missing data on the BMI: n = 34 for GPCP, = 21 for EPG & 20 for MD
  8. hQoL = Quality of life. Because of missing data, n = 32 for GPCP, 17 for EPG and 18 for MD
  9. iSome data on when the AD was completed were missing: n = 19 for EPG and n = 20 for MD
  10. j TC = Transition care
  11. *Kruskall Wallis test statistically significant at 0.05