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Table 1 Baseline characteristics by whether participants had advance directive completions

From: Costs and advance directives at the end of life: a case of the ‘Coaching Older Adults and Carers to have their preferences Heard (COACH)’ trial

Variable ADa completed ADa not completed Entire sample
n = 76 n = 152 n = 228
mean (SD) mean (SD) mean (SD)
Age (in years)* 85.76 (7.02) 83.31 (6.88) 84.13 (7.01)
Baseline QoLb (EQ-5D 3 L score)* 0.41 (0.31) 0.49 (0.29) 0.46 (0.30)
Baseline functional status (Barthel Index) 57.46 (21.4) 60.99 (20.70) 59.81 (20.95)
Baseline cognitive function SMMSEc score) 22.24 (5.54) 23.63 (4.97) 23.17 (5.22)
Baseline depressive symptoms (GDS-15d score)* 5.84 (2.97) 4.30 (2.97) 4.80 (3.05)
Body mass index (BMI)e 24.03 (5.79) 24.47 (5.86) 24.32 (5.83)
  n (%) n (%) n (%)
Gender (female) 44 (58) 94 (62) 138 (61)
Individuals with a QoLf gain over 12 months 28 (42) 67 (48) 95 (46)
Individuals dead at 12 months 18 (24) 35 (23) 53 (23)
Place of death
 Hospital 10 (56) 21 (60) 31 (58)
 Residential Care/Respite 8 (44) 11 (31) 19 (36)
 Home/Independent 0 (0) 3 (9) 3 (6)
 Living unit
Type of ADa completed (%)
 GPCPg 35 (46)   
 EPGh 21 (28)   
 MDi 20 (26)   
When AD was completedj
 Before admission to TCk 22 (30)   
 During admission to TCk 51 (70)   
Trial Arm
 Intervention* 53 (70) 63 (41) 116 (51)
 Usual care* 23 (30) 89 (59) 112 (49)
  1. aAD = Advance directive
  2. bQoL = Quality of life
  3. cSMMSE = Standardised Mini Mental State Examination (SMMSE)
  4. d GDS-15 = Geriatric Depression Scale. Due to missing data, n = 78 for AD completers and n = 147 for AD non-completers
  5. eThere was some missing data on the BMI and therefore n = 79 for AD completers and n = 140 for non-completers
  6. fQoL = Quality of life. Due to missing data, n = 71 for AD completers and n = 137 for AD non-completers
  7. gGPCP = Good palliative care plan
  8. hEPG = Enduring power of guardianship
  9. iMD = Medical documentation
  10. jSome data missing on when the AD was completed were missing for n = 4 COACH participants
  11. kTC = Transition care
  12. *Kruskall Wallis test statistically significant at 0.05