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Table 1 The nurse-sensitive patient outcomes, explanatory nursing factors and potential confounding variables

From: A longitudinal examination of the association between nurse staffing levels, the practice environment and nurse-sensitive patient outcomes in hospitals

Variables enter in the multilevel Cox Regression models Data Level
Nurse-sensitive patient outcomes  
 Pressure ulcers (hospital acquired) Patient
 Falls (inpatient falls) Patient
 Falls with injury Patient
 Restraints Patient
 Urinary catheter-associated urinary tract infection Patient
 Central line catheter-associated blood stream infection Patient
Explanatory nursing factors  
 Education composition of registered nurses: the proportion of registered nurses educated to baccalaureate level or higher upon entry to the profession Ward
  Registered nurses staffing level: full-time equivalent employment Ward
  Practice environment: Ward
   Nurse participation in hospital affairs (mean subscale score)  
   Staffing and resource adequacy (mean subscale score)  
   Nursing foundations for quality of care (mean subscale score)  
   Nurse manager ability, leadership, and support of nurses (mean subscale score)  
   Collegial nurse-physician relations (mean subscale score)  
Potential confounding variables  
 Patients’ characteristics: age, sex, diagnosis, comorbidities, level of surgical invasiveness, mortality, length of stay and type of admission. Patient
 Characteristics of the wards and patient turnover: types of wards, number of beds, patient bed-days and patient turnover for each shift and patient days Ward
 Characteristics of the hospitals: type of hospital, number of beds, teaching status, region, and technology. Hospital