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Table 5 Effects of cost-sharing in indemity health insurance on health care utilization according to the number of disease

From: The effect of cost-sharing in private health insurance on the utilization of health care services between private insurance purchasers and non-purchasers: a study of the Korean health panel survey (2008–2012)

Variablea Outpatient visits per person Inpatient admissions per person Length of stay per person
ß S.E p-value ß S.E p-value ß S.E p-value
No chronic disease (n = 4109)          
 Time          
  2008 Ref.    Ref.    Ref.   
  2009 0.227 0.038 <.0001 0.136 0.131 0.297 0.344 0.217 0.112
  2010 0.366 0.042 <.0001 0.351 0.144 0.015 0.081 0.192 0.672
  2011 0.427 0.046 <.0001 0.229 0.147 0.118 0.136 0.202 0.500
 Group (indemnity health insurance)          
  Non-purchaser Ref.    Ref.    Ref.   
  Purchaser 0.444 0.062 <.0001 0.697 0.188 0.000 0.455 0.234 0.052
 Time x Group (difference in difference estimator)         
  2009 0.029 0.079 0.716 −0.126 0.251 0.617 0.037 0.343 0.915
  2010 −0.160 0.074 0.031 −0.180 0.257 0.483 0.470 0.344 0.171
  2011 −0.177 0.079 0.025 −0.347 0.263 0.187 −0.144 0.328 0.660
1–2 (n = 2439)          
 Time          
  2008 Ref.    Ref.    Ref.   
  2009 0.015 0.023 0.519 −0.155 0.126 0.216 0.074 0.198 0.709
  2010 0.054 0.030 0.075 −0.079 0.127 0.537 −0.095 0.146 0.515
  2011 0.077 0.034 0.022 −0.034 0.158 0.830 −0.148 0.159 0.353
 Group (indemnity health insurance)          
  Non-purchaser Ref.    Ref.    Ref.   
  Purchaser 0.267 0.066 <.0001 0.095 0.291 0.744 0.190 0.376 0.613
 Time x Group (difference in difference estimator)         
  2009 −0.226 0.069 0.001 0.403 0.295 0.172 −0.059 0.443 0.894
  2010 −0.245 0.075 0.001 0.122 0.271 0.654 −0.104 0.415 0.802
  2011 −0.313 0.079 <.0001 −0.134 0.291 0.645 −0.258 0.420 0.539
3 or more (n = 1276)          
 Time          
  2008 Ref.    Ref.    Ref.   
  2009 0.019 0.022 0.385 −0.083 0.088 0.345 −0.168 0.136 0.217
  2010 0.075 0.024 0.002 −0.020 0.082 0.808 −0.013 0.138 0.926
  2011 0.116 0.025 <.0001 0.085 0.083 0.306 0.022 0.136 0.871
 Group (indemnity health insurance)          
  Non-purchaser Ref.    Ref.    Ref.   
  Purchaser −0.093 0.126 0.459 −0.385 0.366 0.293 −0.073 0.414 0.861
 Time x Group (difference in difference estimator)         
  2009 −0.014 0.122 0.909 −0.021 0.428 0.962 −0.795 0.515 0.123
  2010 0.000 0.148 0.998 0.077 0.429 0.858 −0.266 0.444 0.549
  2011 −0.020 0.131 0.878 0.364 0.434 0.402 0.445 0.500 0.374
  1. aAdjusted for sex, age, marital status, education level, the number of chronic disease, household income, region, and employment status