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Table 3 Effects of cost-sharing in indemnity health insurance on health care utilization

From: The effect of cost-sharing in private health insurance on the utilization of health care services between private insurance purchasers and non-purchasers: a study of the Korean health panel survey (2008–2012)

Variable Outpatient visits per person Inpatient admissions per person Length of stay per person
ß S.E p-value ß S.E p-value ß S.E p-value
Sex          
 Man Ref.    Ref.    Ref.   
 Woman 0.179 0.025 <.0001 −0.206 0.060 0.001 −0.356 0.093 0.000
Age          
 1–19 Ref.    Ref.    Ref.   
 20–39 −0.592 0.041 <.0001 0.272 0.145 0.060 0.675 0.200 0.001
 40–59 −0.426 0.049 <.0001 0.224 0.166 0.177 1.381 0.243 <.0001
 above 60 −0.114 0.042 0.007 0.486 0.168 0.004 1.592 0.191 <.0001
Marital status          
 Divorced/widowed/unmarried Ref.    Ref.    Ref.   
 Married 0.371 0.032 <.0001 0.261 0.066 <.0001 −0.068 0.147 0.646
Educational level          
 Below elementary school Ref.    Ref.    Ref.   
 Middle school −0.437 0.030 <.0001 −0.244 0.088 0.006 −0.317 0.126 0.012
 High school −0.573 0.031 <.0001 −0.284 0.074 0.000 −0.388 0.122 0.001
 Above college −0.790 0.040 <.0001 −0.515 0.109 <.0001 −0.670 0.204 0.001
Public health financing          
 National Health Insurance Ref.    Ref.    Ref.   
 Medical Aid (for the poor) 0.245 0.037 <.0001 0.593 0.083 <.0001 0.770 0.139 <.0001
Chronic disease          
 None Ref.    Ref.    Ref.   
 One 0.818 0.032 <.0001 0.801 0.114 <.0001 1.056 0.148 <.0001
 Two 1.133 0.036 <.0001 0.970 0.103 <.0001 1.089 0.186 <.0001
 Three or more 1.478 0.035 <.0001 1.418 0.097 <.0001 1.340 0.150 <.0001
Household Income          
 Q1(High) Ref.    Ref.    Ref.   
 Q2 −0.061 0.027 0.023 0.093 0.093 0.316 −0.011 0.115 0.926
 Q3 −0.053 0.027 0.048 −0.037 0.080 0.639 −0.079 0.122 0.516
 Q4(Low) −0.088 0.028 0.002 −0.150 0.080 0.062 −0.137 0.139 0.324
Employment status          
 Employed or self-employed Ref.    Ref.    Ref.   
 Unemployed or inactive 0.116 0.025 <.0001 0.320 0.055 <.0001 0.445 0.099 <.0001
Region          
 Rural Ref.    Ref.    Ref.   
 Urban −0.016 0.023 0.475 −0.296 0.055 <.0001 −0.293 0.087 0.001
Time          
 2008 Ref.    Ref.    Ref.   
 2009 0.050 0.016 0.002 −0.073 0.067 0.281 0.124 0.113 0.269
 2010 0.115 0.019 <.0001 0.020 0.067 0.769 0.036 0.096 0.708
 2011 0.142 0.020 <.0001 0.047 0.071 0.505 −0.038 0.097 0.695
Group (indemnity health insurance)          
 Non-purchasers Ref.    Ref.    Ref.   
 Purchasers 0.340 0.042 <.0001 0.320 0.153 0.036 0.202 0.184 0.272
Time x Group (difference in difference estimator)        
 2009 0.015 0.050 0.758 0.154 0.173 0.372 0.108 0.242 0.655
 2010 −0.117 0.049 0.016 0.045 0.167 0.785 0.264 0.257 0.304
 2011 −0.140 0.049 0.004 −0.209 0.169 0.216 −0.147 0.224 0.511