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Table 3 The prevalence of refrain from buying medications due to cost by different socio-economic variables

From: The prevalence of self-reported underuse of medications due to cost for the elderly: results from seven European urban communities

Variable %/n
Lithuania Sweden Germany Italy Spain Portugal Greece All
Sex         
 Male (R) 16.0/36 0.7/2 1.6/5 0.7/2 0.0/0 1.6/4 0.0/0 2.6/49
 Female 15.6/63 1.2/4 2.3/8 2.2/8 0.5/2 6.0/24** 1.1/4* 4.4/113***
Age group         
 60–64 years (R) 20.5/30 2.4/5 2.9/4 2.1/3 0.0/0 1.9/3 1.1/2 4.2/47
 65–69 years 16.9/25 0.0/0* 0.5/1 2.1/3 0.7/1 3.8/6 0.6/1 3.4/37
 70–74 years 12.3/18 0.9/1 3.9/6 2.3/3 0.0/0 5.8/8 0.7/1 3.9/37
 74–79 years 14.0/17 0.0/0* 1.0/1 0.8/1 0.9/1 7.0/8 0.0/0 3.7/28
 80–84 years 13.0/9 0.0/0* 1.4/1 0.0/0 0.0/0 3.7/3 0.0/0 2.4/13*
Lives alone         
 No (R) 16.4/78 0.7/3 0.9/4 1.5/8 0.2/1 3.3/17 0.6/3 3.4/114
 Yes 13.2/20 1.4/3 4.3/ 9* 2.4/2 0.9/1 7.7/11 0.6/1 4.4/47
Education         
 Less than primary 26.5/9 7.1/1 0.0/0 0.0/0 0.3/1 17.3/13*** 0.0/0 3.6/24
 Primary 17.7/26 1.6/3 7.7/1 0.9/2 1.2/1 4.2/10 0.5/1 4.1/45
 Secondary 16.3/46 1.0/2 2.2/9 2.2/7 0.0/0 1.3/3 0.8/2 3.8/68
 University (R) 11.3/16 0.0/0 1.7/3 1.5/1 0.0/0 1.9/2 0.0/0 2.6/22
Economic hardship         
 Never 3.0/5*** 0.3/1* 0.0/0* 0.8/2* 0.0/0 0.0/0*** 2.4/1 0.6/9***
 Quite often 15.1/36* 0.0/0* 2.0/4* 0.4/1* 0.0/0 2.0/3* 0.0/0 3.7/44*
 Often 24.4/33 2.9/1 5.4/4 2.1/2 0.0/0 13.5/10 0.0/0 7.2/50
 Always (R) 28.4/25 15.4/4 17.9/5 10.6/5 0.7/2 6.4/15 1.1/3 6.1/59
  1. n number of observed persons, R reference group
  2. *-p < 0.05, **-p < 0,01 and ***-p < 0,001 comparing with a reference group