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Table 3 Final models of relationship between neighborhood factors on knowledge and self care behaviors

From: Assessing the relationship between neighborhood factors and diabetes related health outcomes and self-care behaviors

  Diabetes knowledge Medication adherence General diet Exercise Blood sugar testing Foot care
Neighborhood problems       
 Safety −0.016 0.019 0.0002 −0.097 0.002 0.007
 Violence 0.001 −0.089 −0.036 0.007 −0.092 0.015
 Crime −0.341 0.220 0.119 0.114 0.209 0.156
 Problems −0.017 −0.012 0.004 −0.026 −0.001 0.074
Neighborhood characteristics       
 Aesthetics 0.141* 0.042 −0.093* −0.005 −0.053 −0.084
 Walking environments 0.010 −0.019 0.014 −0.040* 0.034 0.036
 Recreational facilities 0.061 0.040 0.025 −0.054 −0.001 −0.020
 Neighborhood activities 0.007 −0.018 −0.072* −0.104* −0.057 −0.114*
 Neighborhood rating −0.137 0.017 −0.052 0.058 −0.107 0.064
 Neighborhood comparison 0.452* −0.224 −0.082 −0.153 −0.086 0.024
Access to healthy food       
 Food insecurity −0.108 −0.147* −0.125* −0.106 −0.172* −0.046
 Access to healthy food −0.036 −0.025 −0.019 0.018 −0.007 −0.016
Social support       
 Social cohesion 0.090 0.046* 0.028 0.026 −0.019 0.070
 Social support 0.001 0.009* 0.016** 0.006 0.009 0.010*
Comorbidities 0.040 −0.132* 0.048 −0.064 0.191** 0.173**
Health literacy       
 Low (ref)       
 Marginal 0.025 0.714 0.539 0.338 0.158 0.524
 Adequate 2.12** 0.494 0.412 0.258 0.350 0.475
Age       
 18–34 years −0.384 −0.801 −0.987 −0.501 −0.191 1.58
 35–44 years −0.187 −0.230 0.120 0.281 0.287 −0.437
 45–64 (ref)       
 65+ years −0.614 0.507* 0.529* 0.182 0.156 0.215
Gender       
 Male (ref)       
 Female 0.277 0.103 −0.216 −0.265 −0.269 0.015
Marital status       
 Never married (ref)       
 Married 0.312 0.514 −0.156 −0.356 −0.328 0.463
 Separated/divorced −0.195 0.419 0.218 −0.174 −0.576 0.221
 Widowed −0.152 0.208 −0.055 −0.546 −0.526 0.816
Race       
 Non-Hispanic White (ref)       
 Non-Hispanic Black −0.509 −0.335 0.065 −0.087 0.223 0.516*
 Hispanic/other 0.598 −2.16* −1.50 −0.812 −0.593 −1.28
Education       
 <High school −1.76* 0.017 0.128 −0.431 −0.707 0.054
 High school −0.782* 0.009 −0.199 −0.055 −0.277 −0.031
 College (ref)     0.544   
 Graduate school 0.650 −0.17 0.028   −0.561 0.193
Employment       
 Unemployment (ref)       
 Employed −0.600 −0.447* −0.052 0.320 −0.138 0.053
Income       
 <$19,999 (ref)       
 $20,000–49,999 0.482 −0.079 0.029 −0.779* −0.453 −0.164
 $50,000–74,000 1.15 −0.506 −0.304 −0.712 −1.02 0.584
 ≥$75,000 0.802 −0.206 −0.137 −0.565 −0.771 −0.848
Health insurance       
 Uninsured (ref)       
 Private 0.361 0.401 −0.178 −0.723 0.533 −0.398
 Medicare −0.159 0.138 −0.657 −0.702 0.225 −0.498
 Medicaid -.0737 0.999* −0.261 −0.126 1.35* 0.873
 Military −0.082 −0.026 −0.820* −0.121 0.235 0.139
 Other insurance −0.643 0.590 0.043 −0.617 0.576 0.358
R2 0.208 0.155 0.096 0.101 0.043 0.082
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.001, ref = reference group
  2. Final model for each outcome after hierarchical models run entering variables in blocks based on theoretical relationships – first model included variables characterized as neighborhood problems, second block added variables characterized as neighborhood characteristics, third block added variables, characterized as access to healthy foods, fourth block added variables characterized as social support, and fifth block added sociodemographic variables