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Table 7 Coefficients estimating total life expectancy (years) – models C and D

From: Comparing efficiency of health systems across industrialized countries: a panel analysis

  Model C Model D
  FE FE full SFA FE FE full SFA
Total physicians per 1,000 capita 0.061* 0.041* 0.007 0.047 0.039* 0.008
  (0.028) (0.018) (0.007) (0.022) (0.017) (0.006)
YPLL from assaults per 100,000 capita 0.000 0.000 −0.000 0.001 0.000 −0.000
  (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001)
YPLL from self-harm per 100,000 capita −0.002 0.001 −0.002 −0.002 0.001 0.000
  (0.004) (0.004) (0.001) (0.005) (0.005) (0.002)
YPLL from transportation per 100,000 capita −0.026* −0.013 −0.002 −0.021* −0.013 −0.002
  (0.009) (0.007) (0.001) (0.007) (0.008) (0.001)
YPLL from alcohol use per 100,000 capita −0.003* −0.001 0.000 −0.001 −0.000 0.000
  (0.001) (0.002) (0.001) (0.002) (0.002) (0.001)
Calories consumed per capita per day (adjusted for average population height in cm) 0.048 0.002 −0.012 0.065 0.009 −0.022
  (0.025) (0.034) (0.012) (0.038) (0.034) (0.012)
Percent of population (15 years and older) smoking daily −0.025* −0.004 0.002 −0.017* −0.004 0.002
  (0.011) (0.006) (0.002) (0.007) (0.006) (0.002)
Total (mobile + stationary) nitrogen dioxide (measured in cubic tons) per square mile of land −0.008 0.018* 0.004 0.004 0.018* 0.003
  (0.009) (0.006) (0.003) (0.007) (0.006) (0.003)
GDP per capita, PPP, deflated to 2005 dollars     0.038*** 0.008 0.017**
     (0.007) (0.007) (0.006)
Year       
1991   0.000    0.000  
1992   0.000    0.000  
1993   0.000    0.000  
1994   0.000    0.000  
1995   −0.029***    −0.027***  
   (0.004)    (0.005)  
1996   −0.026***    −0.024***  
   (0.004)    (0.004)  
1997   −0.023***    −0.022***  
   (0.004)    (0.004)  
1998   −0.021***    −0.019***  
   (0.003)    (0.003)  
1999   −0.017***    −0.016***  
   (0.003)    (0.003)  
2000   −0.015    −0.014***  
   (0.002)    (0.002)  
2001   −0.012    −0.011***  
   (0.001)    (0.002)  
2002   −0.011***    −0.010***  
   (0.001)    (0.001)  
2003   −0.010***    −0.009***  
   (0.001)    (0.011)  
2004   −0.006***    −0.006***  
   (0.001)    (0.001)  
2005   −0.004***    −0.004***  
   (0.001)    (0.001)  
2006   −0.002    −0.002  
   (0.001)    (0.001)  
2007   0.000    0.000  
2008   0.000    0.000  
2009   0.000    0.000  
2010   0.000    0.000  
Constant 4.579*** 4.292***   3.952*** 4.178***  
  (0.219) (0.153)   (0.193) (0.173)  
Observations 133 133 133 133 133 133
Adjusted R-squared 0.890 0.946   0.915 0.946  
  1. Note: FE = country fixed effects; FE Full = country and time fixed effects; SFA = stochastic frontier analysis; Smoking variable is lagged by 5 years; YPLL = Years of potential life lost; GDP = Gross Domestic Product; PPP = Purchasing Power Parities
  2. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001