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Table 2 Country ranks when estimating total life expectancy (years)

From: Comparing efficiency of health systems across industrialized countries: a panel analysis

Estimation approach   Model A Model B Model C Model D
Fixed Effect w/ Country US Rank 6/25 16/20 9/14 13/14
Top Rank Country New Zealand Slovenia Japan Japan
Sample Size 394 203 133 133
Fixed Effects w/ Country and Year US Rank 12/25 14/20 7/14 8/14
Top Rank Country Japan Israel Australia Australia
Sample Size 394 203 133 133
Stochastic Frontier Analysis US Rank 15/23 10/18 11/13 12/13
Top Rank Country Japan Japan Japan Japan
Sample Size 393 201 133 133
Independent Variables Total physicians per 1,000 capita x x x x
  YPLL from assaults per 100,000 capita x x x x
  YPLL from self-harm per 100,000 capita x x x x
  YPLL from transportation per 100,000 capita x x x x
  YPLL from alcohol use per 100,000 capita x x x x
  MRI scanners per million population   x   
  CT scanners per million population   x   
  Calories consumed per capita per day (adjusted for average population height in cm)    x x
  Percent of population (15 years and older) smoking daily    x x
  Total (mobile + stationary) nitrogen dioxide (measured in cubic tons) per square mile of land    x x
  GDP per capita, PPP (Deflated to 2005 Dollars)     x
  1. NOTE: Smoking variable is lagged by 5 years; YPLL = Years of potential life lost; CT = computed tomography; MRI = magnetic resonance imaging; GDP = Gross Domestic Product; PPP = Purchasing Power Parities