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Table 3 Generalized linear model of hospital payment-to-charge ratio by payer

From: Predicting inpatient hospital payments in the United States: a retrospective analysis

Characteristic Medicare Medicaid Private Self-Pay Other
Demographic (%)      
Female .204 -.442 -.671*** .007 -.094
Age Group, years (%)      
 0–17 1.26*** -.072 .497 -.246 -.328
 18–35 .845*** .173 .974*** -.605* −1.03*
 36–45 2.78** -.153 .057 -.563 −1.20*
 46–55 -.431 -.123 .795 -.264 −1.01
Race/Ethnicity (%)      
 Black .225 .040 .037 -.180 .172
 Hispanic .262*** .158** -.045 -.226* .057
 Other/missing race -.071 .073 -.305** -.003 .304***
Inpatient Stay (%)      
 Died 2.03* 3.59** .696 −3.05 .238
 APR-DRG = 2 .044 .209 .467** -.103 -.292
 APR-DRG = 3 -.472* .776** .816 .038 −1.68*
 APR-DRG = 4 -.539 −4.71*** −2.04 -.034 -.955
Hospital And Market      
 Critical access hospital .572*** .502*** .153 -.103 -.014
 Rural referral center .070** .109** .026 -.038 .062
 Sole community provider .193*** .096 .219*** -.034 .033
 Teaching hospital .180*** .180*** .074** -.059 -.114*
 Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) .019*** .077*** .101*** -.004 -.161*
 HHI squared .001*** -.004*** -.005*** .001 .013*
 Average DRG weight .133 .058 .011 .177* .071
 Medicare disch./10,000 .005
 (Medicare disch./10,000)^2 -.007
 Medicare ALOS/10 -.385
 (Medicare ALOS/10)^2 .142
 Medicaid disch/10,000 -.052
 (Medicaid disch/10,000)^2 .015
 Medicaid ALOS/10 .065***
 (Medicaid ALOS/10)^2 .003***
 Wage index -.452*** -.464*** .056 -.093 -.177
State      
 2005 deficit ($) -.033* -.021*** -.019* -.039*** -.040***
 2006 per capita income ($) .018 .039*** .000 .084*** .033***
 Elderly under FPL (100,000 s) .000 -.000 .000 .000*** .000
 Medicaid eligibility threshold for children (% of FPL) -.686** −1.41*** -.754*** −3.97*** −2.21***
 Medicaid eligibility threshold for working parents (% of FPL) .425*** .194*** .303 .563*** .195***
 Medicaid per capita spending ($) .236*** .289*** .000*** -.181*** -.213***
 CHIP enrollment rate −8.34*** −7.86*** −6.99*** −8.17*** .627
 Number of FQHCs per 1,000 nonelderly uninsured -.000*** -.000*** -.166*** -.000*** -.037***
First-Stage Errors      
 Medicare PCR --- 1.30*** .582*** .095 .196
 Medicaid PCR 1.37*** --- .224 .151 -.012
 Private PCR .598*** .109 --- -.236 -.025
 Self-Pay PCR -.012 -.022 -.226 --- -.092
 Other PCR -.007 -.021 -.058** -.089 ---
 Intercept 6.71*** 6.53 6.57 8.26 1.61
 Number of Observations 852 856 854 778 817
  1. Notes: Figure are exponentiated coefficients. ALOS, average length of stay; APR-DRG, All-Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Group; CHIP, Children’s Health Insurance Program; disch., stay; DRG, diagnosis related group, FPL, federal poverty level; FQHC, federally qualified health center; PCR, payment-to-charge ratio
  2. *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001