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Table 2 Hospital-level means by payera

From: Predicting inpatient hospital payments in the United States: a retrospective analysis

Characteristic

Medicare

Medicaid

Private

Self-Pay

Other

 

mean (s.d.)

mean (s.d.)

mean (s.d.)

mean (s.d.)

mean (s.d.)

No. Obs.

1,110

1,061

1,105

899

868

Price-to-Charge Ratio

     

 Mean (SD)

.320 (.197)

.367 (.205)

.487 (.211)

.456 (.405)

.611 (.265)

 Range

.098–.903

.176–.879

.197–.992

.193–.859

.268–.986

Average patient characteristics

     

Gender (%)

     

 Female

.566 (.055)

.640 (.082)

.585 (.071)

.466 (.085)

.423 (.126)

Age group, years (%)

     

 0–17

.005 (.051)

.293 (.176)

.191 (.141)

.134 (.146)

.113 (.151)

 18–35

.018 (.043)

.305 (.100)

.211 (.075)

.311 (.080)

.221 (.096)

 36–45

.030 (.027)

.121 (.063)

.145 (.041)

.200 (.060)

.173 (.073)

 46–55

.053 (.034)

.130 (.085)

.180 (.064)

.197 (.066)

.212 (.082)

 56+

.894 (.106)

.151 (.129)

.272 (.134)

.159 (.084)

.281 (.157)

Race/ethnicity (%)

     

 Black

.087 (.134)

.156 (.177)

.086 (.131)

.119 (.145)

.109 (.125)

 Hispanic

.079 (.146)

.219 (.236)

.107 (.163)

.186 (.198)

.136 (.166)

 White

.709 (.301)

.471 (.296)

.655 (.295)

.552 (.278)

.615 (.276)

 Other/missing race

.125 (.259)

.154 (.244)

.152 (.251)

.142 (.221)

.141 (.243)

Inpatient stay (%)

     

 Died

.042 (.040)

.013 (.037)

.014 (.041)

.015 (.034)

.023 (.053)

 APR-DRG = 0

.000 (.001)

.000 (.003)

.000 (.002)

.001 (.003)

.000 (.003)

 APR-DRG = 1

.195 (.075)

.505 (.154)

.539 (.120)

.507 (.108)

.485 (.136)

 APR-DRG = 2

.453 (.065)

.340 (.089)

.334 (.071)

.361 (.071)

.357 (.079)

 APR-DRG = 3

.282 (.071)

.124 (.073)

.100 (.055)

.104 (.051)

.125 (.070)

 APR-DRG = 4

.070 (.052)

.031 (.030)

.026 (.048)

.027 (.020)

.033 (.029)

Hospital and market

     

 Critical access hospital (%)

.095 (.294)

.080 (.272)

.093 (.291)

.055 (.227)

.030 (.171)

 Rural referral center (%)

.033 (.180)

.035 (.184)

.033 (.180)

.037 (.188)

.043 (.202)

 Sole community provider (%)

.086 (.281)

.086 (.280)

.087 (.282)

.083 (.277)

.076 (.265)

 Teaching hospital (%)

.294 (.456)

.311 (.463)

.300 (.459)

.320 (.467)

.324 (.468)

 Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) *10

3.80 (3.23)

3.66 (3.14)

3.77 (3.21)

3.54 (3.08)

3.45 (2.99)

 (HHI *10) squared

24.9 (34.9)

23.2 (33.6)

24.5 (34.6)

22.0 (32.8)

20.8 (31.4)

 Average DRG weight

1.32 (.278)

.878 (.280)

1.03 (.310)

.975 (.234)

1.22 (.355)

 Medicare disch./10,000

.419 (.408)

 (Medicare disch./10,000)^2

.342 (.861)

 Medicare ALOS

.640 (.467)

 (Medicare ALOS/10)^2

.627 (2.17)

 Medicaid disch/10,000

.205 (.269)

 (Medicaid disch/10,000)^2

.114 (.450)

 Medicaid ALOS/10

.601 (.946)

 (Medicaid ALOS/10)^2

1.25 (17.2)

 Wage index

1.07 (.178)

1.08 (.179)

1.08 (.180)

1.09 (.176)

1.08 (.492)

State

     

 2005 deficit ($1,000 s)

5,423 (6,211)

5,520 (6,193)

5,421 (6,184)

5,778 (6,251)

5,588 (6,290)

 2006 per capita income ($1,000s)

41.07 (4.75)

41.3 (4.70)

41.1 (4.73)

41.6 (4.56)

41.3 (4.61)

 Elderly under FPL (100,000s)

13.2 (11.1)

13.3 (11.1)

13.1 (11.1)

13.6 (11.2)

13.7 (11.1)

 Medicaid eligibility threshold for children (% of FPL/100)

1.03 (.134)

1.03 (.139)

1.03 (.136)

1.04 (.150)

1.03 (.147)

 Medicaid eligibility threshold for adults (% of FPL/100)

1.11 (1.34)

1.12 (.503)

1.13 (.508)

1.14 (.489)

1.08 (.492)

 Medicaid per capita spending

1,137 (566)

1,153 (573)

1,149 (574)

1,162 (572)

1,119 (556)

 CHIP enrollment rate

.851 (.061)

.853 (.059)

.852 (.061)

.853 (.059)

.848 (.062)

 Number of FQHCs per 1,000 nonelderly uninsured

6.82 (3.20)

6.75 (3.10)

6.78 (3.16)

6.74 (3.07)

6.94 (3.21)

  1. Notes: ALOS, average length of stay; APR-DRG, All-Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Group; CHIP, Children’s Health Insurance Program, DRG, diagnosis related group; FPL, federal poverty level; FQHC, Federally Qualified Health Center
  2. aFigures are from the Medicare sample except for Medicaid ALOS and its square, which are from the Medicaid sample