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Table 2 Hospital-level means by payera

From: Predicting inpatient hospital payments in the United States: a retrospective analysis

Characteristic Medicare Medicaid Private Self-Pay Other
  mean (s.d.) mean (s.d.) mean (s.d.) mean (s.d.) mean (s.d.)
No. Obs. 1,110 1,061 1,105 899 868
Price-to-Charge Ratio      
 Mean (SD) .320 (.197) .367 (.205) .487 (.211) .456 (.405) .611 (.265)
 Range .098–.903 .176–.879 .197–.992 .193–.859 .268–.986
Average patient characteristics      
Gender (%)      
 Female .566 (.055) .640 (.082) .585 (.071) .466 (.085) .423 (.126)
Age group, years (%)      
 0–17 .005 (.051) .293 (.176) .191 (.141) .134 (.146) .113 (.151)
 18–35 .018 (.043) .305 (.100) .211 (.075) .311 (.080) .221 (.096)
 36–45 .030 (.027) .121 (.063) .145 (.041) .200 (.060) .173 (.073)
 46–55 .053 (.034) .130 (.085) .180 (.064) .197 (.066) .212 (.082)
 56+ .894 (.106) .151 (.129) .272 (.134) .159 (.084) .281 (.157)
Race/ethnicity (%)      
 Black .087 (.134) .156 (.177) .086 (.131) .119 (.145) .109 (.125)
 Hispanic .079 (.146) .219 (.236) .107 (.163) .186 (.198) .136 (.166)
 White .709 (.301) .471 (.296) .655 (.295) .552 (.278) .615 (.276)
 Other/missing race .125 (.259) .154 (.244) .152 (.251) .142 (.221) .141 (.243)
Inpatient stay (%)      
 Died .042 (.040) .013 (.037) .014 (.041) .015 (.034) .023 (.053)
 APR-DRG = 0 .000 (.001) .000 (.003) .000 (.002) .001 (.003) .000 (.003)
 APR-DRG = 1 .195 (.075) .505 (.154) .539 (.120) .507 (.108) .485 (.136)
 APR-DRG = 2 .453 (.065) .340 (.089) .334 (.071) .361 (.071) .357 (.079)
 APR-DRG = 3 .282 (.071) .124 (.073) .100 (.055) .104 (.051) .125 (.070)
 APR-DRG = 4 .070 (.052) .031 (.030) .026 (.048) .027 (.020) .033 (.029)
Hospital and market      
 Critical access hospital (%) .095 (.294) .080 (.272) .093 (.291) .055 (.227) .030 (.171)
 Rural referral center (%) .033 (.180) .035 (.184) .033 (.180) .037 (.188) .043 (.202)
 Sole community provider (%) .086 (.281) .086 (.280) .087 (.282) .083 (.277) .076 (.265)
 Teaching hospital (%) .294 (.456) .311 (.463) .300 (.459) .320 (.467) .324 (.468)
 Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) *10 3.80 (3.23) 3.66 (3.14) 3.77 (3.21) 3.54 (3.08) 3.45 (2.99)
 (HHI *10) squared 24.9 (34.9) 23.2 (33.6) 24.5 (34.6) 22.0 (32.8) 20.8 (31.4)
 Average DRG weight 1.32 (.278) .878 (.280) 1.03 (.310) .975 (.234) 1.22 (.355)
 Medicare disch./10,000 .419 (.408)
 (Medicare disch./10,000)^2 .342 (.861)
 Medicare ALOS .640 (.467)
 (Medicare ALOS/10)^2 .627 (2.17)
 Medicaid disch/10,000 .205 (.269)
 (Medicaid disch/10,000)^2 .114 (.450)
 Medicaid ALOS/10 .601 (.946)
 (Medicaid ALOS/10)^2 1.25 (17.2)
 Wage index 1.07 (.178) 1.08 (.179) 1.08 (.180) 1.09 (.176) 1.08 (.492)
State      
 2005 deficit ($1,000 s) 5,423 (6,211) 5,520 (6,193) 5,421 (6,184) 5,778 (6,251) 5,588 (6,290)
 2006 per capita income ($1,000s) 41.07 (4.75) 41.3 (4.70) 41.1 (4.73) 41.6 (4.56) 41.3 (4.61)
 Elderly under FPL (100,000s) 13.2 (11.1) 13.3 (11.1) 13.1 (11.1) 13.6 (11.2) 13.7 (11.1)
 Medicaid eligibility threshold for children (% of FPL/100) 1.03 (.134) 1.03 (.139) 1.03 (.136) 1.04 (.150) 1.03 (.147)
 Medicaid eligibility threshold for adults (% of FPL/100) 1.11 (1.34) 1.12 (.503) 1.13 (.508) 1.14 (.489) 1.08 (.492)
 Medicaid per capita spending 1,137 (566) 1,153 (573) 1,149 (574) 1,162 (572) 1,119 (556)
 CHIP enrollment rate .851 (.061) .853 (.059) .852 (.061) .853 (.059) .848 (.062)
 Number of FQHCs per 1,000 nonelderly uninsured 6.82 (3.20) 6.75 (3.10) 6.78 (3.16) 6.74 (3.07) 6.94 (3.21)
  1. Notes: ALOS, average length of stay; APR-DRG, All-Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Group; CHIP, Children’s Health Insurance Program, DRG, diagnosis related group; FPL, federal poverty level; FQHC, Federally Qualified Health Center
  2. aFigures are from the Medicare sample except for Medicaid ALOS and its square, which are from the Medicaid sample