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Table 1 Sources and definitions of analysis variables

From: Predicting inpatient hospital payments in the United States: a retrospective analysis

Variable Description
Age Age group categories 0–17, 18–35, 36–45, 46–55, 56–64 years
Gender Female
Race/ethnicity Non-Hispanic White, Non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, Other
APR-DRG Severity Index Patients are classified into one of four severity-of-illness values based on clinical severity (minor, moderate, major, or extreme) according to clinical logic that includes interactions of multiple comorbidities, age, procedure, and principal diagnosis. Newborns and cases that cannot be classified are assigned a value of zero. All others receive a value from 1 to 4, where 4 indicates the greatest severity.
Teaching hospital status Teaching status of the hospital (yes = 1, no = 0)
Critical access status Hospital’s status as a critical-access hospital (yes = 1, no = 0). For criteria see https://www.cms.gov/CertificationandComplianc/04_CAHs.asp
Sole community provider status Hospital’s status as the sole community provider (yes = 1, no = 0). For background information, see: https://www.cms.gov/Outreach-and-Education/Medicare-Learning-Network-MLN/MLNProducts/downloads//SoleCommHospfctsht508-09.pdf
Rural referral center status Hospital’s status as a rural referral center (yes = 1, no = 0). For background information, see: http://www.cms.gov/Outreach-and-Education/Medicare-Learning-Network-MLN/MLNProducts/downloads//Rural_Referral_Center_Fact_Sheet.pdf
Hospital bed size Number of inpatient beds, represented by four categories: <100, 100–199, 200–499, or 500 or more
Medicare average wage index Regional wage index
Medicare inpatient days Medicare average length of stay at the hospital in 2006
Medicare stays Number of Medicare stays in 2006
Medicaid inpatient days Medicaid average length of stay at the hospital in 2006
Medicaid stays Total number of Medicaid stays at the hospital in 2006
Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) of hospital competition The sum of the squared market shares of each hospital in the market. The market is defined as every hospital within 15 miles of the hospital at which a stay took place.
DRG Weight Hospital-level average DRG weight across all included discharges for the payer.
FY2005 Deficit Dollars FY 2005 deficit projection in millions of dollars (Center on Budget and Policy Priorities; FY 2004 General Fund data from NASBO, Fiscal Survey of the States, December 2003, Table A-3.)
2006 Per Capita Income by State Income per capita by state in 2006 (Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department of Commerce, March 2012, Table SA1-3 Personal Income Summary)
Non-Elderly Uninsured Below the FPL State number of non-elderly uninsured below the FPL. (Urban Institute and Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured estimates based on the Census Bureau’s March 2010 and 2011 Current Population Survey)
Working Parents Medicaid Eligibility State Medicaid eligibility threshold for working parents as a proportion of the FPL. (Urban Institute and Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured estimates based on the Census Bureau’s March 2010 and 2011 Current Population Survey)
Medicaid per Capita 2006 Medicaid spending, total and per-capita spending (Public Policy Institute Analysis of Kaiser Family Foundation Data)
CHIP Rate State Children’s Health Insurance Program. Medicaid/CHIP Participation Rates (Medicaid/CHIP Participation Rates 2011, see: http://www.insurekidsnow.gov/professionals/reports/index.html)
FQHC Federally Qualified Health Centers (Service Delivery Sites), 2010 (see http://kff.org/other/state-indicator/total-fqhcs-service-delivery-sites/)
  1. Notes: APR-DRG, All-Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Group; CHIP, Children’s Health Insurance Program; FPL, federal poverty level; FQHC, Federally Qualified Health Center; FY, fiscal year; NASBO, National Association of State Budget Officers