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Table 1 Empirical studies of literature review

From: Organizational justice, trust, and identification and their effects on organizational commitment in hospital nursing staff

Researchers (Year) Results and management findings
Empirical studies on the influence of organizational justice on organizational trust
Moorman et al. [33] This study’s findings stressed that the influence of procedural justice is more significant than that of distributive justice in predicting organizational trust.
Konovsky & Pugh [22] Procedural justice is an important factor in employees’ citizenship behavior. Distributive justice cannot predict organizational citizenship behavior and organizational trust and support.
Korsagard et al. [34] This study indicated that procedural justice has a greater influence on trust than distributive justice does.
Aryee et al. [13] This study indicated that organizational justice can predict trust in and support for organizations and supervisors within organizational trust, thereby predicting organizational citizenship behavior and performance.
Empirical studies on the influence of organizational justice on organizational identification
Tyler & Blader [37] The Group Engagement Model developed in this study explains the formation of group membership. The assumptions of this model infer that perceptions of organizational justice significantly and positively influence organizational identification.
Lipponen et al. [38] This study found that organizational justice could predict employees’ identification with their organizations.
Lipponen & Olkkonen [39] The results of this study performed on a geographical research institute in Finland with 270 employees indicated that organizational justice (distributive justice and procedural justice) positively influenced organizational identification.
Fuchs & Edwards [45] This study examined 137 market research employees and found that organizational justice, particularly fair interpersonal treatment of workers, positively influenced organizational identification.
Kreiner & Ashforth [46] This study used multiple regression analysis and indicated that procedural justice can predict workers’ organizational identification in multinational companies.
Empirical studies on the influence of organizational trust on organizational commitment
Nicholson & Johns [55] This study indicated that workers with psychological contracts with high degrees of trust in their organizations have better work ethics and strong organizational commitment. In contrast, workers with psychological contracts with low degrees of trust in their organizations participate less in organizational affairs and have weak commitment. This study shows that implicit trust seems to influence organizational commitment.
McCauley & Kuhnert [56] This study indicated that workers with strong feelings of trust in their organizations feel more satisfied with their jobs and have higher commitment toward their organizations.
Geyskens & Steenkamp [57] This study indicated that employees’ trust in their organizations was positively associated with their organizational commitment.
Brockner et al. [59] This study found that workers support and are committed to their management teams and organizations when their trust in their organizations’ upper management teams is high.
Schoorman et al. [60] This study found a positive correlation between organizational trust and organizational commitment.
Empirical studies on the influence of organizational identification on organizational commitment
Pratt [67] This study indicated that organizational identification is viewed as a link between the individual and organization. This means that individuals assess the significance of their organizations toward themselves. Employees that identify with their organizations have higher organizational commitment.
Riketta [68] This study indicated that organizational identification among workers is positively associated with attitudes toward organizational commitment.
Cole & Bruch [53] This study found that organizational identification is seen as a part of organizational commitment. The two are highly correlated.
Knippenberg & Schie [69] This study indicated that organizational identification is generated when the internal members of an organization have a self-defined perceptual awareness of all phenomena shaped by the organization. When organizational members are in a psychological state of identification with their organizations, relationships with the organization are further constructed. This is organizational commitment.
Van Dick et al. [70] The results of this study indicate that organizational identification has a negative influence on employees’ turnover intentions. That is, organizational identification is positively associated with employee organizational commitment.