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Table 4 Odds ratios from logistic regression models explaining home care receipt by payer

From: Who pays for home care? A study of nationally representative data on disabled older Americans

  Public program only  
Medicare only [A] Medicaid [B] Personal only [C] Public & Personal [D]
Odds ratio (95 % CI) Odds ratio (95 % CI) Odds ratio (95 % CI) Odds ratio (95 % CI)
Need for caregiving  
No. of ADL's  
 1-2 2.53** (1.49–4.32) 1.42 (0.88–2.27) 0.96 (0.82–1.13) 1.55 (0.95–2.52)
 3-4 4.79** (2.81–8.16) 2.74** (1.72–4.38) 1.34** (1.12–1.62) 2.78** (1.65–4.71)
 5-6 6.10** (3.45–10.78) 3.37** (1.98–5.72) 2.00** (1.59–2.51) 6.54** (3.77–11.33)
No. of IADL's  
 2-3 2.47** (1.41–4.34) 2.32** (1.26–4.28) 2.28** (1.91–2.72) 2.19** (1.24–3.85)
 4-5 4.68** (2.66–8.22) 5.71** (3.12–10.46) 3.55** (2.89–4.35) 3.39** (1.83–6.28)
 6-8 6.17** (3.44–11.06) 9.66** (5.20–17.97) 4.27** (3.40–5.36) 4.38** (2.33–8.24)
Age 0.99 (0.98–1.01) 0.98* (0.96–1.00) 1.03** (1.02–1.04) 1.02 (1.00–1.03)
Demographics  
Female 0.88 (0.68–1.14) 0.91 (0.68–1.22) 0.92 (0.80–1.05) 1.22 (0.94–1.58)
Race  
 African American 1.02 (0.70–1.49) 1.56* (1.10–2.22) 0.44** (0.33–0.58) 0.72 (0.50–1.06)
 Other 1.05 (0.38–2.91) 0.80 (0.30–2.14) 0.96 (0.49–1.88) 0.27 (0.03–2.20)
Hispanic 0.67 (0.37–1.21) 1.23 (0.75–2.03) 1.02 (0.74–1.41) 0.75 (0.42–1.36)
Economic resources  
Education         
 High school grad 1.01 (0.77–1.33) 0.56** (0.41–0.78) 1.79** (1.56–2.06) 1.10 (0.84–1.44)
 College degree 0.96 (0.59–1.57) 0.12** (0.04–0.39) 2.90** (2.37–3.56) 1.89** (1.25–2.86)
Family income  
 15,000-29,999 0.67* (0.49–0.92) 0.28** (0.18–0.44) 1.72** (1.46–2.04) 0.63** (0.46–0.87)
 30,000-49,999a 0.40** (0.21–0.77) 0.22** (0.09–0.57) 1.79** (1.39–2.31) 0.48* (0.26–0.89)
 50,000-74,999 0.48 (0.22–1.05) (variable omitted)a 2.13** (1.56–2.91) 0.45* (0.20–0.99)
 75,000+ 0.37 (0.09–1.57) (variable omitted)a 3.72** (2.50–5.53) 0.12* (0.02–0.92)
 Missing 0.52** (0.38–0.72) (0.26–0.54) 1.41** (1.20–1.65) 0.82 (0.61–1.10)
Economic resources   
Home assets   
 Yes, but missing 0.87 (0.64–1.17) 0.52** (0.37–0.73) 0.74** (0.63–0.87) 0.68* (0.50–0.93)
  < 150,000 0.95 (0.70–1.31) 0.43** (0.31–0.61) 0.72** (0.62–0.85) 0.52** (0.39–0.70)
  ≥ 150,000 0.70 (0.41–1.20) 0.14** (0.05–0.40) 0.86 (0.70–1.07) 0.60* (0.39–0.93)
Year  
 1994 3.48** (2.47–4.89) 1.06 (0.74–1.53) 1.12 (0.96–1.31) 0.32** (0.24–0.45)
 1999 1.99** (1.33–2.97) 1.14 (0.78–1.67) 0.49** (0.41–0.59) 0.39** (0.28–0.55)
 2004 0.89 (0.57–1.40) 1.09 (0.75–1.58) 0.34** (0.28–0.40) 0.15** (0.10–0.23)
Informal resources  
Informal care hours  
 0 1.28 (0.92–1.79) 3.84** (2.56–5.74) 5.17** (4.18–6.39) 1.20 (0.85–1.71)
 1-8 1.18 (0.83–1.67) 2.31** (1.51–3.52) 2.98** (2.40–3.70) 1.42* (1.01–2.00)
 9-24 1.00 (0.70–1.42) 1.20 (0.75–1.93) 1.63** (1.29–2.06) 1.00 (0.70–1.43)
Marital status  
 Single 0.55 (0.29–1.05) 1.09 (0.56–2.13) 1.34 (0.97–1.85) 0.89 (0.49–1.61)
 Widowed 0.91 (0.67–1.22) 1.27 (0.86–1.89) 1.65** (1.41–1.93) 1.03 (0.76–1.39)
 Divorced 1.13 (0.71–1.78) 1.83* (1.14–2.94) 1.49** (1.16–1.92) 0.82 (0.46–1.46)
Number of children  
 1 0.51** (0.34–0.76) 0.59* (0.38–0.94) 0.81* (0.67–0.99) 0.88 (0.60–1.30)
 2 0.52** (0.36–0.76) 0.54** (0.35–0.84) 0.86 (0.71–1.04) 0.57** (0.38–0.84)
 3 0.52** (0.35–0.79) 0.73 (0.45–1.19) 0.70** (0.57–0.86) 0.73 (0.49–1.11)
 4+ 0.57** (0.40–0.81) 0.95 (0.64–1.42) 0.61** (0.49–0.75) 0.70 (0.48–1.03)
  1. NLTCS, 1989–2004 (N = 11,725). Models include state fixed effects
  2. *p < .05, **p < .01
  3. aFamily income was topcoded at $30,000+ in the Medicaid model due to the very small number of respondents with incomes over $30,000 receiving services financed by Medicaid. Therefore, the second income dummy variable gives the difference in the outcome between those with incomes over $30,000 and those in the lowest income category