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Table 5 Factors associated with non-hospitalization among empty-nest elderly in Shandong, China (2012)

From: Non-use of health care service among empty-nest elderly in Shandong, China: a cross-sectional study

Variable Univariate model Multivariate model
Non-user (%) P-value OR c a OR c 95 % CI P-value OR a b OR a 95 % CI
Predisposing factors        
Gender      NA c   
 Male 107(37.0)   1.0     
 Female 114(35.3) 0.656 0.93 0.67–1.29    
Age      NA   
 60− 95(35.1)   1.0     
 70− 94(36.7) 0.691 1.08 0.75–1.54    
 80+ 32(37.6) 0.664 1.12 0.68–1.85    
Marriage status      NA   
 Married 173(34.7)   1.0     
 Others 48(42.1) 0.141 1.37 0.90–2.07    
Education      NA   
 Primary and below 138(35.4)   1.0     
 Junior 37(38.5) 0.564 1.15 0.72–1.82    
 High or above 46(36.5) 0.819 1.05 0.69–1.60    
 Enabling factors        
Residence      NA   
 Urban 142(35.9)   1.0     
 Rural 79(36.6) 0.860 1.03 0.73–1.46    
Living arrangements      NA   
 Empty-nest singles 48(42.1)   1.0     
 Empty-nest couples 173(34.7) 0.141 0.73 0.48–1.11    
Low-income household d        
 No 190(33.8)   1.0    1.0  
 Yes 31(62.0) 0.000 3.19 1.76–5.80 0.005 3.55 1.91–6.59
Insurance e        
 None 29(76.3)   1.0    1.0  
 MIUE 79(33.9) 0.000 0.16 0.07–0.35 0.000 0.17 0.07–0.37
 MIUR 29(34.5) 0.000 0.16 0.07–0.39 0.000 0.16 0.07–0.39
 NCMS 80(32.1) 0.000 0.15 0.07–0.33 0.000 0.13 0.06–0.30
 Others 4(50.0) 0.145 0.31 0.06–1.50 0.161 0.32 0.07–1.57
 Need factors        
Self-rated health      NA   
 Good 55(31.8)   1.0     
 Moderate 97(38.6) 0.149 1.35 0.90–2.03    
 Bad 69(36.7) 0.327 1.24 0.80–1.92    
Illness in the past 2 weeks      NA   
 Yes 200(35.6)   1.0     
 No 21(42.0) 0.367 1.31 0.73–2.36    
NCD in the past 6 months f        
 Yes 203(35.1)   1.0    1.0  
 No 18(52.9) 0.039 2.08 1.04–4.16 0.027 2.24 1.10–4.59
  1. aORc: crude odds ratio; bORa: adjusted odds ratio; CNA: not applicable
  2. dLow income household: In Chinese, we call it “Dibaohu”, which is identified as a low-income household and subsidized by local bureau of civil affairs
  3. eMIUE: Medical insurance for urban employees scheme; MIUR: Medical insurance for urban residents scheme; NCMS: New cooperative medical scheme
  4. fNCD: Non-communicable chronic disease