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Table 1 Characteristics of elderly by living arrangements, China (2012)

From: Non-use of health care service among empty-nest elderly in Shandong, China: a cross-sectional study

Characteristics Total Empty-nest Non-empty-nest P
n % n % n %
Observations 4469 100.0 2667 59.7 1802 40.3  
Predisposing factors       
Gender        0.000
 Male 2078 46.5 1286 48.2 792 44.0  
 Female 2391 53.5 1381 51.8 1010 56.0  
Age        0.000
 60− 2629 58.8 1445 54.2 1184 65.7  
 70− 1429 32.0 968 36.3 461 25.6  
 80+ 411 9.2 254 9.5 157 8.7  
Marriage status        0.000
 Married 3511 78.6 2210 82.9 1301 72.2  
 Others 958 21.4 457 17.1 501 27.8  
Education        0.100
 Primary or below 3145 70.4 1849 69.3 1296 71.9  
 Junior 713 16.0 431 16.2 282 15.6  
 High or above 611 13.7 387 14.5 224 12.4  
 Enabling factors        
Residence        0.083
 Urban 2305 51.6 1404 52.6 901 50.0  
 Rural 2164 48.4 1263 47.4 901 50.0  
Living arrangements      NAb   
 Empty-nest single    457 17.1    
 Empty-nest couple    2210 82.9    
Low income household a       0.385
 Yes 331 7.4 205 7.7 126 7.0  
 No 4138 92.6 2462 92.3 1676 93.0  
Insurance c        0.000
 None 193 4.3 117 4.4 76 4.2  
 MIUE 1168 26.1 776 29.1 392 21.8  
 MIUR 545 12.2 327 12.3 218 12.1  
 NCMS 2518 56.3 1417 53.1 1101 61.1  
 Others 45 1.0 30 1.1 15 0.8  
 Need factors        
Self-rated health        0.000
 Good 2277 51.0 1278 47.9 999 55.4  
 Moderate 1497 33.5 939 35.2 558 31.0  
 Bad 695 15.6 450 16.9 245 13.6  
Illness in the past 2 week       0.000
 Yes 2896 64.8 1830 68.6 1066 59.2  
 No 1573 35.2 837 31.4 736 40.8  
NCD in the past 6 months d       0.000
 Yes 2930 65.6 1809 67.8 1121 62.2  
 No 1539 34.4 858 32.2 681 37.8  
  1. aLow income household: In Chinese, we call it “Dibaohu”, which is identified as a low-income household and subsidized by local bureau of civil affairs
  2. bNA: not applicable
  3. cMIUE: Medical insurance for urban employees scheme; MIUR: Medical insurance for urban residents scheme; NCMS: New cooperative medical scheme
  4. dNCD: Non-communicable chronic disease