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Table 2 Study details, length of stay

From: A systematic review of the magnitude and cause of geographic variation in unplanned hospital admission rates and length of stay for ambulatory care sensitive conditions

Paper ID Condition Number of Admissions Geographical Units (N)a Mean Age (SD)b Covariate Adjustmentc Statistical Methods Tested Cause Untested Cause
Belgium         
 Claeys 2013 [55] MI 2,079 Hospital (33) 62 (13) None Raw Data Case Mix Discharge Planning
Graphs
Canada         
 Feagan 2000 [71] Pneumonia 858 Hospital (20) 69.4 (17.7) A,S,C,O Raw Data Case Mix Clinical Guidelines
Tables Hospital Type PC Access
% Variation Explained Procedure/Drug Availability
Denmark         
 Klausen 2012 [21] Pneumonia 12,753 Hospital (22) 65-74 (32.5 %) A,S,C Raw Data Case Mix Clinical Guidelines
75-84 (40.6 %) Graphs Hospital Size PC Quality
>85 (26.9 %) P-Values (Cox Regression) Condition Volume
Spain         
 Cabre 2004 [72] Pneumonia 1,769 Hospital (27) 66.4 (18.1) A,S,C Hierarchical Model Variance Estimates Case Mix SC Access
SC Quality
Clinical Guidelines
PC Quality
Garau 2008 [73] Pneumonia 3,233 Hospital (10) 66 (18.5) A,SC,O Raw Data Case Mix None
Tables
P-Values (Cox Regression)
 Pozo-Rodriguez 2012 [74] COPD 5,178 Hospital (129) 75 (IQR: 68–80) None IQR None None
UK         
 Hosker 2007 [75] COPD 8,013 Hospital (233) 71 (IQR: 71–74) None IQR None None
 Price 2006 [27] COPD 910 Hospital (234) N/A A,S,C IQR SC Quality None
ICC Clinical Guidelines
Hospital Size
 Roberts 2002 [76] COPD 1,400 Hospital (38) 72 None Range Case Mix SC Quality
IQR
 Rudd 2001 [77] Stroke 6,894 Health Region (10) 75 (12) A,O Raw Data Case Mix None
Tables SC Quality
P-Values (Kruskal-Wallis)
US         
 Brogan 2012 [78] Pneumonia 43,819 Hospital (29) 3 (IQR: 1–6) None Raw Data Procedure/Drug Availability None
Graphs
Range
 Conway 2009 [28] UTI 20,892 Hospital (25) 1-2 mo (16.7 %) None Raw Data Case Mix Coding Quality
2-6 mo (29.9 %) Graphs Clinical Guidelines
6-24 mo Condition Volume
(19.1 %)
2-12 y (34.3 %)
 Drye 2012 [79] Heart Failure 718,508 Hospital (3,135) >65 (100 %) None Raw Data None None
Graphs
MI
Range
Pneumonia
 Krumholz 1999 [80] Heart Failure 905 Hospital (49) <65 (42 %) A,S,C,O Raw Data Case Mix SC Quality
>65 (58 %) Graphs
  % Variation Explained
  1. aNumber of geographical units
  2. bMean age and standard deviation when available. Other counts represent percentage of patients in each age band
  3. cA: Age, S: Sex, C: Case-Mix, O: Other
  4. dPrimary Care
  5. eSecondary Care