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Table 1 Study details, admission rates

From: A systematic review of the magnitude and cause of geographic variation in unplanned hospital admission rates and length of stay for ambulatory care sensitive conditions

Paper ID Condition Number of Admissions Geographical Units (N) a Mean Age (SD)b Covariate Adjustmentc Statistical Methods Tested Cause Untested Cause
Australia         
 Ansari 2005 [56] Diabetes 38,900 Primary Care Partnerhips (32) N/A A,S Raw Data None Case Mix
Graphs SC Access
  SC Quality
Clinical Guidelines
Coding Quality
 Tennant 2000 [57] Dental 3,754 Health service region (32) <18 (100 %) A Raw Data None None
Graphs
Canada         
 Crighton 2007 [58] Influenza 241,803 County (49) N/A A,S Raw Data None Case Mix
Pneumonia Maps SC Access
Spatial Analysis PC Quality
Range Analysis Clinical Guidelines
COV
 Crighton 2008 [59] Influenza 241,803 County (49) N/A A,S Raw Data None Case Mix
Maps
Coding Quality
Pneumonia
Spatial Analysis
 Curtis 2002 [60] Diabetes 15,872 District Health Board (16) <18 (100 %) A,S Raw Data None Case Mix
Maps
PC Quality
Extremal Quotient
 Jin 2003 [25] Pneumonia 36,516 Health Region (17) 18-44 (18 %) A,S Raw Data SC Access Case Mix
46-64 (19 %) Graphs
65-74 (20 %)
75-84 (26 %)
85+ (16 %)
 To 1996 [24] Gastroenteritis 10,105 County (41) <1 (25.3 %) A,S Range Case Mix Coding Quality
1 (25.7 %) COV SC Access
2 (14.5 %) SCV
3-5 (17.3 %) Extremal Quotient
6-8 (7.0 %)
9-14 (4.4 %)
12-14 (2.9 %)
15-17 (2.8 %)
New Zealand        
 Bandaranayake 2011 [61] Influenza 1,743 District Health Board (20) N/A None Raw Data None Case Mix
Graphs
 Barnett 2010 [26] ACSCs 24,894 GP Practice (102) N/A None Raw Data Case Mix None
Graphs PC Quality
  PC Access
Practice Size
 Dharmalingam 2004 [62] ACSCs N/A Modified District Health Board (29) N/A A Raw Data Case Mix None
Tables
 Ellison-Loschmann 2004 [53] Asthma 25,865 Territorial Authority (74) N/A None Raw Data None Case Mix
Maps
Spain         
 Magan 2008 [63] ACSCs 64,409 Health District (34) 78.9 A,S Raw Data Case Mix PC Quality
Cardiovascular Disease Maps   Clinical Guidelines
Heart Failure Tables   Staffing Levels
Pneumonia Range   
  COV   
  SCV   
UK         
 Downing 2007 [20] Asthma 2,271 GP Practice (94) <65 (84.8 %) A,S,O Hierarchical Model Case Mix None
  Cardiovascular Disease    >65 (15.2 %)   Variance Estimates PC Quality  
  COPD        
  Diabetes        
  Stroke        
 Giuffrida 1999 [22] Asthma N/A Health Authority (90) N/A None Range Case Mix Clinical Guidelines
  Diabetes       SC Access  
        Staffing Levels  
 Starr 1996 [56] Stroke N/A Local government districts (22) 40-59 (100 %) None Raw Data Case Mix SC Access
       Tables   
US         
 Adams 1993 [64] Alcohol Abuse 87,147 State (50) >65 (100 %) A,S,O Raw Data Case Mix Coding Quality
Maps
 Casper 2010 [65] Heart Failure N/A County (3,187) >65 (100 %) A Raw Data None Coding Quality
Maps PC Access
 Chen 2011 [19] Heart Failure 55,097,390 State (52) 79.0 (7.7) A,S,C,O Raw Data None None
Maps
 Gorton 2006 [66] Pneumonia 4,948 County (67) 59.6 mo A,S,O Raw Data None Case Mix
Maps SC Access
 Holt 2011 [67] COPD 3,786,908 State (50) >65 (100 %) None Raw Data None Case Mix
Hospital Referral Region (949) Maps
  Spatial Analysis
 Laditka 1999 [68] ACSCs 21,923 Hospital Market Area (24) >65 (100 %) A,S Raw Data None Case Mix
Tables PC Access
 Lanska 1994 [69] Stroke 318,000 State (49) >65 (100 %) A,S,O Raw Data None Case Mix
Maps SC Access
Spatial Analysis SC Access
Clinical Guidelines
Procedure/Drug
Availability
High readmission rates
 Maliszewski 2011 [60] Influenza 2,010 County (58) <18 (24.4 %) A,S,O Raw Data Case Mix None
>65 (12.4 %) Maps
Spatial Analysis
 Morris 1994 [23] Asthma N/A County (3,079) >65 (100 %) A,S,O Raw Data Case Mix Coding Quality
COPD Maps SC Access
Pneumonia Spatial Analysis Staffing Levels
 Ogunniyi 2012 [70] Heart Failure 845,421 County (1,014) 65-75 (30.8 %) A Raw Data None Case Mix
State (10) 75-84 (41.3 %) Tables SC Access
>85 (27.9 %) Maps PC Access
Spatial Analysis
  1. aNumber of geographical units
  2. bMean age and standard deviation when available. Other counts represent percentage of patients in each age band
  3. cA: Age, S: Sex, C: Case-Mix, O: Other
  4. dPrimary Care
  5. eSecondary Care